Computer Stuff


     Erik Jones
     Department of Academic
Computing University of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North Worcester, MA 01655 E-mail:

Copyright 1991 by the University of Massachusetts, free use
permitted for non-profit educational use.  Attribution appreciated.  

1    Installing WordPerfect 5.1
2    Starting the Program
3         Using the Keyboard
4         Help
6         Editing Text
7         Page Breaks
7         More Cursor Movement
8         Underlining and Boldface
9         Centering Text
10         Tabbing vs. Indenting
10         Editing Two Documents
12         Reveal Codes
12         DISK USAGE
13         Listing Files
13         Saving your Document
14         Manipulating Files
14         Option 9 - Find
15         Exiting WordPerfect
17         Hyphenation
17         Justification
17         Line Height
18         Line Numbering
18         Line Spacing
18         Left and Right Margins
18         Tab Stops
19         Widow/Orphan Protection
19         Center Page
20         Force Odd/Even Page
20         Headers and Footers
20         Top/Bottom Margins
20         Page Numbering
21         Paper Size/Type
21         Suppress
21         Redline Method
22         Document Summary
22         Other Options
     The Display
     Environment Controls
     Initial Settings
     File Locations

     Spell Checking

     Control Printer
     View Document
     Printer Options

     Base Font
     Print Color

     Changing a Block's Attributes

     Moving and Copying the Block




     Graphics Boxes



     Table of Authorities
     Table of Contents


     DOS Text
     Save As


     Compose Characters
     Flush Right
     Go to DOS


     Retrieve a Document
     Find a Document on Disk
     Turn on Justification
     Make Document Double-Spaced
     Change Left/Right Margins
     Change Top/Bottom Margins
     Create a Header/Footer
     Number Pages
     Change to Landscape Orientation
     Make Timed Backups
     Create Initial Codes
     Spell Check a Document
     Use the Thesaurus
     Find Text
     Find and Replace Text
     View a Document
     Import a Graphic
     Create Columns
     Make a Cross-Reference to a Page
     Make a Sub-document
     Make an Index
     Create a Table of Contents
     Save a Document as WordPerfect 5.0
     Create a Basic Mail-Merge
     Copy Text Between Documents


Welcome to one of the most powerful word processors ever created,
WordPerfectc 5.1.  This
mini-manual is intended to substitute for the bulky reference
manual that the people at
WordPerfect Corporation decided to send along with this program. 
I find their manual too
long, complex, boring, and ill-suited to the new computer user. 
What this mini-manual will
do is take you through all the functions of WordPerfect 5.1.  If
you follow it from beginning
to end you should soon become an experienced user on WordPerfect. 
It is intended that
you progress through these pages in order if you are a beginner on
the system.  This mini-
manual will not hesitate to explain every little item in places. 
Too often in computer
manuals the writers just expect that the user knows something, and
that is often a horrible
experience for the people who have to read the manuals.

I will warn you now, WordPerfect is not simple to use.  It was
intended for professional
business people like you who need to get the most out of their
computer systems.
WordPerfect is powerful, yet it is also complex.  No one becomes an
expert fast, so take
your time with this manual.  Remember, this booklet was written
with the intention of
building you up a level at a time, unlike the WordPerfect
Corporation's manual which is just
a reference guide.  Take it at your own pace, because WordPerfect
is not easy.

I do not claim that this mini-manual is 100% complete.  I would peg
it at just about 92%.
It covers everything you need to know to do just about anything
with WordPerfect, but it
does not delve into every single nook and cranny.  Therefore, as
you become more and
more of an advanced user, you might need to pull out the reference
manual at times.

If you have a mouse, you might as well toss it in a desk drawer for
WordPerfect.  While
WordPerfect 5.1 supports the use of a mouse, it's horrible.  The
people at WordPerfect
Corporation had no idea how to make a mouse system that made any
sense, and since there
is nothing you can do with a mouse that you can't do other ways,
I'm not even going to
mention the mouse again.

If you don't understand any section of this document, try Appendix
II.  There I have a set
of Function Maps.  These are step-by-step guides, broken down into
a road map of what
keys to push, that will tell you how to execute any given function. 
I feel these maps will be
invaluable to inexperienced computer users.  They are the simplest
guides to commands that
you will ever want to see.  If you see the phrase See Function Maps
anywhere in a section,
it means that the way to execute that function is explained in a
simple, easy to use map.

By the way, this manual was created on WordPerfect, with a small
smattering of help from
its companion program, DrawPerfect.  I'll try to highlight some of
the best features of
WordPerfect as we go along.
Installing WordPerfect 5.1

The first thing that you need to do is install WordPerfect 5.1 onto
your hard drive, which
I assume you have.  If you do not have a hard drive, I do not
recommend WordPerfect at
all, because the constant changing of disks will drive you crazy. 
If you are on a computer
that already has WordPerfect installed, then you can skip this
section.  Make sure that you
have your hardware manuals available, as WordPerfect will need to
know exactly what kind
of computer system you are running on.

First of all, turn on the computer and the monitor.  (I will try to
be simple about the
computer, but if you have any questions about the computer itself
you should consult your
owner's manual.) After the computer finishes is self-start, you
should be at what is known
as the DOS prompt.  This will resemble C> although it might also
have other characters
as well.  (If your computer is set up so that another piece of
software is automatically run
when you turn on the computer, you will need to exit out of it so
that you can get to the
DOS prompt.) To the right of the prompt is your cursor, a blinking
line or block that shows
you where what you type is going to come up onto the screen.  If
the first letter of the
prompt is something besides "C", please type C: and hit the Enter
key.  The first letter of
the prompt should now be "C".

You need approximately 4 megabytes of storage space on your hard
drive to install
WordPerfect completely.  To make sure you have 4 megabytes
available, type dir and hit
Enter.  After a list of files the computer will tell you at the
very end how many bytes free
you have.  If that number is less than 4,000,000 you will need to
erase some programs off
of your hard drive.

Along with WordPerfect 5.1 should have come 10 disks, each
separately labeled.  The size
of the disks should correspond to the size of the disk drive that
you have.  Take out the disk
which has a label that has the word "Install", as well as a number
"1".  Put the disk into the
disk drive in the main part of the computer.  The disk goes into
the disk drive with the label
on top of the disk and towards you.  Putting the disk into the
computer the wrong way could
seriously damage your system.

The drive that you put the disk has a letter name, just like the
hard drive that you are using
has the name "C".  Consult your owner's manual if you do not know
the name of the drive.
To activate that drive, type the letter of the drive, followed
immediately by a colon, i.e. a:.
Then hit the Enter key.  You have now activated the drive that the
disk is in.  Now type the
word install and hit Enter.  The installation program will begin.

The installation program is one of the few things that is
straightforward about WordPerfect.
The program goes in a series of easy-to-use menus, telling you
exactly what to do and when.
When WordPerfect asks you about your hardware configuration,
consult your owner's
manual to make sure that it has identified your computer hardware
correctly.  When it asks
you what type of installation you want to do, choose the basic,
standard configuration, not
a customized one.  When the installation program finishes, turn off
the computer and turn
it back on.
Starting the Program

Now that you've got WordPerfect installed on your "C" drive, you
are ready to use it.  If
your "C" drive is not activated already (if the first letter of the
prompt is not "C") change to
the "C" drive by typing c: and hitting Enter.  Now you need to
change to the directory on
the "C" drive where the WordPerfect files are being kept.  To do
this, type cd\wp51 and hit
Enter.  Now type wp and hit Enter.  WordPerfect will boot up on
your computer.  On the
monitor you will see some welcome screens which will tell you that
WordPerfect 5.1 is
loading.  (If you are working on a computer system that has a menu
on the screen, you
simply need to choose WordPerfect 5.1 from the menu.  Also, if
you're using someone else's
computer system, you might need to have a disk in one of the drives
before WordPerfect
will load properly.  Look at the lights on the disk drives as the
program is loading to see if
any lights go on to signify that WordPerfect is looking for a disk
in that drive.)

When the program is finished loading the screen will turn blue.  It
will be completely blank,
except for the very bottom line of the screen.  On the bottom line
of the screen, you will see

     Doc 1 Pg 1 Ln 1"
     Pos 1"

This line is called the status line.  When anything happens in
WordPerfect, this line will tell
you exactly what it is.  On the left of the line, which is
momentarily blank, is the space that
the name of the file you are working on right now is kept.  On the
right is information about
where in WordPerfect you are at the moment.  Doc 1 means that you
are in document
number one, because you can be working in two separate documents at
the same time.  Pg
1 means that the cursor is right now located on page one of the
current document.  Ln 1"
means that your cursor is now one inch from the top of the page. 
(That one inch is inserted
automatically as the top margin of the page.) Pos 1" means that the
cursor is located one
inch from the left side of the page.

     NOTE: WordPerfect is not a "what-you-see-is-what-you-get" word
processor.  A lot
     of word processors are made so that what you see on the screen
is exactly what you
     will get on the paper.  One inch on the screen will be one
inch on your printout.
     This is not true with WordPerfect.  A lot of people find that
having the screen show
     a realistic depiction of what the paper will look like is
convenient.  I agree, but the
     main reason that WordPerfect does not do this is for speed. 
Realistic displays slow
     down a word processor immensely, and WordPerfect is too large
and powerful to
     afford to lose any speed.

Using the Keyboard

Let's familiarize ourselves with the keyboard.  The main part of
the keyboard works exactly
like a typewriter.  Try typing a few letters and numbers.  They
appear on the screen where
the cursor is.  Notice that as you type, the numbers down on the
status line change as well.
For every character you type, the Pos number changes, since the
cursor moves further from
the left side of the paper.  If you type so much that you move to
another line, the Ln
number will change as well.

The Enter key acts as a carriage return on a typewriter does.  If
you press this key,
WordPerfect will automatically move the cursor down to the
beginning of the next line.
When you press this key, it is called a Hard Return.  This is
because you have forced
WordPerfect to move the cursor to the next line.  When you type in
WordPerfect, unlike
on a typewriter, the cursor is automatically moved to the next line
when you get to the end
of a line.  Therefore the only time you need to hit the Enter key
is when you need to force
a carriage return, such as at the end of a paragraph.  As you
experiment with the system you
will notice that WordPerfect will not split words in half at the
end of a line.  This is called
word wrapping.  It means that if WordPerfect runs out of room on
one line and can not
finish a word, it will take the whole word and move it down to the
next line.  Word
wrapping is the most important thing in making a document look

To erase characters, use the Backspace key which is located just
above the Enter key.  This
will move the cursor back through the text that you just typed,
erasing characters as it goes.

The Tab key, located on the left side of the keyboard, does exactly
what a Tab key should.
Every time that you press it, your cursor will move forward to the
next Tab stop, which are
located half an inch apart.  If you try to use the Tab key, try to
erase the Tabs as well.
Notice that, even though more than one space might have been
written onto the screen
when you pressed the Tab key, WordPerfect knows the difference
between a Tab and a
bunch of spaces, so the entire Tab will be erased if you hit the
Backspace key.

There are four arrow keys located somewhere on the keyboard.  These
four arrow keys are
what you use to move the cursor around.  99.9% of the time you will
find a set of arrow
keys on the 2, 4, 6, and 8 keys of the number pad.  (If you want to
use the numbers on the
number pad instead of the arrows, you need to hit the Num Lock key
first.) If there is
another set of arrows located to the left of the number pad, I
suggest you use that instead,
because the number pad can be important to use.  The arrow keys
move the cursor in the
direction of the arrow.  Experiment with these for a while until
you become comfortable
with the movement of the cursor.

As on a typewriter, you will see two Shift keys located on the
keyboard.  You will also see
a button marked Ctrl for Control, and one or two marked Alt for
Alternate.  These buttons
are frequently used in WordPerfect.  They are used just like the
Shift key, in that you need
to hold one down, then press another letter.  For example, if I ask
you to press Alt-A, you
would press and hold the Alt button, then press the "A" key.

There are a few more keys that I want you to find on the keyboard
now for future reference.
The function keys are between ten and twelve keys marked with an
"F" and a number.
These function keys are usually in a line across the top of the
keyboard, but are sometimes
in two columns on the far left side of the keyboard.  If I want you
to press one of these keys,
I will do so by naming the key's label, such as F1 or F12.  (The
F11 and F12 keys are not
very important, so if you do not have them don't panic.)

Please find the following keys on your keyboard: Esc - Escape; Ins
- Insert; Del - Delete;
Home - Home; End - End; PgUp - Page Up; PgDn - Page Down.  These
are important keys
which we will get into later.


There is an excellent Help function in WordPerfect.  Get into help
by pressing F3.  You will
see a screen that will tell you everything you need to know about
using Help.  It is very well
made, and I use it often to refresh my memory about WordPerfect
commands.  If you are
using a command and you hit F3, you will automatically be placed in
a screen telling you
helpful information about the command you are executing.

Let's construct a small letter one step at a time.  On the screen,
this is what the final
product will look like, give or take some margins:

     UMass Medical Center

     55 Lake Avenue North

     Worcester, MA 01655

David Johnson
Widget Corp.
101 Main Street
New York, NY 10013

Dear David:

     Just a friendly reminder about our order of 300 widgets last
month.  You had said that they would be here within three weeks of
ordering, yet they have not arrived yet.  These widgets are crucial
to the project we are currently working on.  Please send the order
at your earliest possible convenience.  Thank you, and if there are
any problems please don't hesitate to call me.


     John Q. Public

For the address of the Medical Center, you should use the Tab key
to move the cursor
towards the right side of the screen so that you can have the
address pushed over toward
the right side of the page.  Push the Tab key until the Pos number
on the status line reads
5.5".  After each line of the address, hit the Enter key.  DO NOT
IN PLACE OF THE TAB KEY!  Get into the habit now of lining things
up with the Tab
key instead of the Spacebar.  If you don't, you will come to regret
it later.

To skip a line, such as between the Medical Center's address and
David Johnson's address,
just hit Enter.  Do not try to use the Down-Arrow key to skip a
line.  You can not move the
cursor past where you have finished typing text.  Type David's
address flush with the left
side of the page, hitting Enter after each line.  When you get to
the body of the document,
do not hit Enter as you get to the end of each line.  Remember,
WordPerfect will
automatically move the cursor down to the next line.  You only need
to hit Enter when you
finish the phrase, "please don't hesitate to call me," since that
is the end of a paragraph.

Editing Text

Moving the cursor around in the text is the most important part of
editing.  Try
experimenting with moving the cursor some more.  Notice that the
cursor can not move to
where text has not been typed.

To delete text, you should move your cursor to the end of the
material that you want to
delete, then press the Backspace key until the text is gone.  For
example, let's say you made
a mistake, and the letter should read "30 widgets" instead of "300
widgets".  Move the cursor
to the space between the number "300" and the word "widgets".  Now
press the Backspace
key once.  The last "0" on the number disappears, and all of the
text to the right of the
cursor moves one position to the left to fill in the empty space.

The Backspace key deletes text that is to the left of the cursor. 
Well, there is another way
to do it.  The Del key will delete text underneath and to the right
of the cursor.  Let's say
you suddenly recall that David said the widgets would be here in
four weeks instead of
three.  Well, just move the cursor to the first letter in the word
"three".  Now hit the Del key
five times.  The word disappears.  As you can see, the Backspace
and Del keys complement
each other, one deleting to the right and the other deleting to the

Of course, now we need to insert the word "four".  Since the cursor
is already in position,
you just need to type the word.  All of the other text will get
pushed to the right.  What you
have just done is inserted text into the document.  You were able
to do this because
WordPerfect was in insert mode.  In insert mode, all of the text is
pushed to the right as you
type, so that you don't type over anything.  The other mode is
called, appropriately enough,
typeover mode.  In this mode, the text is not pushed to the right
as you type.  Instead, the
text on the screen is deleted as you type over it.  To change to
the typeover mode, press the
Ins key.  Notice that when you do this, the word typeover appears
on the left side of the
status line to let you know that you are in that mode.  To change
back to insert mode, just
hit the Ins key again.  Since the Ins key switches WordPerfect back
and forth between two
functions, when you hit the key it is known as toggling the mode.

Page Breaks

Move the cursor to the end of the document.  Hit the Enter key a
number of times and
watch the Ln number grow as you get further from the top of the
page.  The default setting
for the length of the page is eleven inches, the standard paper
size.  There is also a one inch
margin at the bottom of the page, so ten inches is the maximum for
the Ln number right
now.  Keep hitting the Enter button until the Ln number get to 10". 
As you pass it, some
interesting things happen, most noticeably that a line of dashes
will appear across the screen.
Also, Ln will reset back to 1" and the Pg number will increase to
2.   What just happened
was that, since WordPerfect passed the end of the first page, it
moved the cursor onto the
second page.  The line of dashes is there to show you the
separation between the pages.
That separation is known as a Soft Page break.

     NOTE: I will talk about things in WordPerfect being "soft" or
"hard" at times.  When
     something is "soft", it is something that WordPerfect had to
do for the good of the
     document.  When the pages needed to be separated, WordPerfect
put in a Soft Page
     break.  In the body of the letter that you just wrote, when
WordPerfect automatically
     moved the cursor down to the beginning of the next line on its
own because you were
     going to run out of space on that line, that is called a Soft
Return.  You didn't tell
     WordPerfect to cause a Return by hitting the Enter key,
WordPerfect did it on its
     own.  As I said, anything soft is for the good of the document
and can be moved
     around by WordPerfect is the document needs them elsewhere. 
When something is
     hard, you yourself have told WordPerfect that you are putting
something there and
     that it shouldn't touch it.  Whenever you hit the Enter key,
that is a Hard Return
     because WordPerfect can't erase it on its own, you must delete
it yourself.

You can force a new page by inserting a Hard Page break.  You can
do this by hitting Ctrl-
Enter.  When you type this keystroke, a line of equal signs will
appear across the screen
instead of a line of dashes to differentiate it from a Soft Page
break.  These Hard Page
breaks can be deleted just like normal characters.

More Cursor Movement

Now that you've seen what a second page looks like, you should
learn about some more
keys on the keyboard.  The PgUp key will move the cursor to the
beginning of the previous
page.  The PgDn key will move the cursor to the beginning of the
following page.  The End
key will move the cursor to the end of the line.

The Home key is a key with many functions.  On its own it does
nothing, because another
key always has to be pressed afterward.  Do not hold down the Home
key as you press the
next key.  Here is a list the uses of the Home key.  (Please note
that sometimes the Home
key has to be pressed twice.)

Home Left-Arrow - Cursor moves to the left of the screen.  Home
Right-Arrow - Cursor moves to the right of the line.  Home Up-Arrow
- Cursor moves to the top of the screen.  Home Down-Arrow - Cursor
moves to the bottom of the screen.
Home Home Left-Arrow - Cursor moves to the beginning of the line. 
Home Home Right-Arrow - Cursor moves to the end of the line.  (Same
as End.)
Home Home Up-Arrow - Cursor moves to the beginning of the document.
Home Home Down-Arrow - Cursor moves to the end of the document. 
The right side of the screen and the end of the line are not the
same thing.  Later on you'll
find that lines can move off the right end of the screen.  Also,
Ctrl-Home will bring up the
words Go to in the status line.  If you type in a page number here
and hit Enter, the cursor
will move to the page number you requested.

Ctrl-Left-Arrow and Ctrl-Right-Arrow move the cursor left and right
one word at a time.
Also, the - and + keys on the number pad will move the cursor 24
lines (one screen) up or
down.  Please note that this will only work if the Num Lock is off.

Underlining and Boldface

There are a number of ways to make portions of your text stand out,
the two most common
of which are underlining and boldface.  Let's say you want to
underline the word "crucial"
in the third sentence.  Move the cursor up to the word crucial and
erase it.  (There is a way
to add effects to words already on the screen, but we'll get into
that later.) Now hit the F8
key.  Notice that when you hit this key, the numbers next to the
Pos on the status line
change their style.  The style is different for every computer
system, but whatever style those
numbers are in means that you are now in underlining mode.  Now
type the word "crucial"
again.  Notice that as you type it, the word on the screen is in
the same style as the numbers
on the status line.  This will help you to know at a glance that
the text is underlined.  When
you are through typing the word, hit F8 again to get out of
underlining mode.  The numbers
on the status line return to normal.  Now, depending on your type
of screen the word
"crucial" probably does not look like it is underlined.  Well, it
is, and that is how underlined
words will appear on your screen.  Like I said before, WordPerfect
is not "what-you-see-is-
what-you-get", a lot of it you have to take on faith.  Later, we'll
be able to change the style
of what underlined words look like.

Right now your cursor should be on the space after the underlined
word "crucial" and the
numbers next to the Pos on the status line should tell you that you
are out of underlining
mode.  Hit the left-arrow key once.  The cursor didn't move, did
it?  But if you look at the
numbers on the status line, you will see that you are now in
underline mode again.  Why?
Well, as we will see later, when WordPerfect tells a word or phrase
to be underlined it does
so by inserting an invisible marker at the beginning of the word
which says, "Underline
begins here." At the end of the word, it inserts another invisible
marker which says,
"Underline ends here." Anything between those two markers is
automatically underlined.
When you hit the left-arrow key just now, you moved the cursor over
the invisible marker
at the end of the word and back into the area of underlining.  Hit
the right-arrow key and
the cursor will be moved back out of the area of underlining.

What if you want the word "crucial" in boldface instead?  Well,
first of all you have to erase
the word "crucial" again.  If you hit the Backspace key once, a
question will appear on the
left side of the status line: Delete [und]? No (Yes).  WordPerfect
is asking you whether or
not you want to get rid of the underlining zone.  Notice that the
cursor is blinking under the
letter "N" in "No".  This means that if you simply hit Backspace
again, the cursor will skip
over the underlining without erasing it.  You need to hit the "Y"
key in order to erase the

When you finish erasing the underlining and the word, hit the F6
key.  The numbers at the
end of the status line will become brighter to signify that
WordPerfect is now in boldface
mode.  Type the word "crucial" again, and you will see the word is
brighter as well.  To get
out of boldface mode, press F6 again.  The rules for deleting
boldface are the same as for
deleting underlining.

     NOTE: Function keys are used very often in WordPerfect, so
much so that only the
     most commonly used are easily remembered.  You need a template
that you can lay
     next to the function keys so that you can remember what they
are used for.  There
     is one located in Appendix I.  Copy that page, then cut out
the template and tape it
     above your function keys to help you remember what they are

Centering Text

Any single line of text can be centered so that it appears directly
in the middle of the line.
I only recommend doing this with an entire line of text that begins
with a Hard Return from
the previous line and ends with a Hard Return to the next line. 
Therefore, the line of text
should stand alone and should not be part of any paragraph.

As I just said, you should start with the cursor at the beginning
of the line.  To go into
centering mode, press Shift-F6.  The cursor will jump to the middle
of the line.  You can
now type in whatever text you want, and WordPerfect will keep it in
the center of the line.
When you are done typing the line, you can simply press Enter to
jump down to the next
line, and the previous line will stay centered.

You can also center text that you've already typed.  Simply move
the cursor to the beginning
of the line and press Shift-F6.  For example, let's say you want to
center the line, "Dear
David:".  Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.  Now hit
Shift-F6.  The line will
automatically be centered.  To remove the centering marker, simply
press the Backspace
key and the marker will be erased.

Tabbing vs. Indenting

We have already seen what the Tab key does, it moves the cursor to
the next half-inch
position on the line.  I also gave you a warning to get in the
habit of using the Tab key
instead of the space key.  Now I'll tell you why.  Right now, you
are using a font called
Courier 10cpi.  While this might mean nothing to you right now, the
10cpi part of the phrase
means that there are exactly 10 characters per inch, and that each
character takes up 1/10th
of an inch.  Now, from the beginning of a line, hitting the Tab key
will cause the cursor to
move 1/2 an inch, which is identical to five spaces.  So right now
it would not matter
whether you used the Tab key or the Spacebar, since every character
is exactly 1/10th of
an inch.

Later on, when you learn how to use other fonts, the habit of using
the Spacebar over the
Tab key will become quite a problem.  The nicest looking fonts are
the proportional fonts.
In these fonts, each character takes up a different amount of
space.  I am using a
proportional font right now, and look at how much thinner my i's
are than my o's.  So now
when you use the Spacebar, the space takes up only 1/20th of an
inch.  The Tab key,
however, keeps going at 1/2 inch intervals.  Therefore, if you are
going to line things up
vertically in WordPerfect, you need to always use the Tab key, not
the Spacebar.

At the beginning of the paragraph in our letter, we put in a Tab
which moved the first line
right half an inch, but left all the other lines against the left
margin.  The indent key, F4,
will move an entire paragraph right half an inch.  Move the cursor
to the beginning of the
body of the letter and delete the sole Tab we have there.  With
your cursor at the beginning
of the line, press F4.  The entire paragraph is now indented half
an inch.  If you were to hit
F4 again, the paragraph would be indented one whole inch.  The
indenting zone goes from
where you hit the F4 key to the next Hard Return.  Please delete
any indents you put in the

     NOTE: Sometimes when you hit a key, you will not see the
result immediately.  For
     example, when you hit F4 you might not have seen the paragraph
move right away.
     Just so that you won't think WordPerfect has made a mistake,
sometimes you need
     to move the cursor down through the text that was supposed to
be affected in order
     to see the changes take place.  Also, hitting Ctrl-F3 and
choosing option 3 will
rewrite the screen so that you can see the changes.

Now that you've deleted the indents, the entire paragraph should be
flush against the left
side of the screen and the cursor should be at the beginning of the
first line of the
paragraph.  With the indent key we can also make hanging indents,
such as those used in
a standard bibliography.  To do this, first hit the F4 key to
indent the paragraph.  Now, to
bring only the first line back to the left margin, hit Shift-Tab,
the back-Tab key.  Viola!  The
paragraph will now have a hanging indent.  Please bring the text
flush with the left margin
again.  (See Function Maps.)

Shift-F4 is very similar to F4, but it indents the paragraph from
both the left margin and the
right margin half an inch.  Try it, then return the paragraph to
the state at which it was

Editing Two Documents

WordPerfect allows you to have two different documents in memory at
the same time, which
is the whole point of having the Doc number on the status line.  To
switch to the second
document, press Shift-F3, the Switch key.  The screen will clear
and the Doc number will
change to 2.  The two documents are completely separate, and
nothing you do to one will
affect the other.  To switch back to the first document, press
Shift-F3 again.  If you want
the two documents on the screen at the same time, press Ctrl-F3 and
choose option 1,
Window.  You will be asked how many lines should be in this window. 
Notice that the
number there is 24, because the editing screen, or "window" that
you are currently using
takes up all 24 lines of the screen.  Type in 12 and hit Enter to
split the screen in half.  Now
the top half of the screen will be Document 1 and the bottom half
of the screen will be
Document 2.  Switch between them by pressing Shift-F3.

Reveal Codes

Every time you put something special into the document, such as
underlining or indenting,
WordPerfect inserts an invisible marker where the feature is
supposed to happen.  With
things like underlining and indenting there are two markers, one to
turn the feature on and
one to turn it off.  With other things, like centering and
indenting, WordPerfect only needs
one marker to turn them on, since they automatically turn off at a
given point.

The document would be fairly messy if you saw these markers all the
time, but sometimes
it's important.  To reveal these markers, or codes, press Alt-F3. 
You can see that the screen
is split in two, the top half of which is your regular document,
and the bottom half of which
is the document with all the codes added.  Every time you move your
cursor, it is moved in
both halves of the screen.  You might want to keep these codes
visible for most of the rest
of your learning, as it will help you to understand exactly what
WordPerfect does when you
press certain keys.  The codes are easy to understand, but here is
a guide to those you have
already used:

[UND] [und] - Turn underlining on and off.
[BOLD] [bold] - Turn boldface on and off.
[SRt], [HRt] - Soft Return, Hard Return.
[SPg], [HPg] - Soft Page break, Hard Page break.
[Tab] - Tab.
[Indent] - Indent from left margin.
[Indent] - Indent from left and right margins.

By the way, when you have the codes revealed WordPerfect will
automatically delete the
codes if you Backspace or Del over them without asking you first. 
WordPerfect figures that
since you can now see the codes, you should know whether or not you
want to erase them.

Whenever you finish working on a file, you need to save it to a
disk so that you can recall
it later.  In this section we will work with manipulating files on
the disk.

Listing Files

First of all, you need to have a formatted disk inserted in your
disk drive.  (If you don't have
a formatted disk or don't know how to format one, please ask
someone for help.) For now
I will assume that the drive is drive "A".  Hit the F5 button.  The
status line will look like

Dir C:\WP51\*.*     (Type = to
change default Dir)

This means that at the moment WordPerfect is looking for your files
on your "C" drive, your
hard drive, in the directory called WP51.  (If you're working on
someone else's computer
it's possible the directory and drive might be different.) This is
the default directory, which
means that any time you save or retrieve a file without specifying
what drive or directory,
the default directory is where WordPerfect will go.

If you just wanted to look at the "A" drive you could type A: and
hit Enter twice.  (If you
do this, make sure you have a disk in the "A" drive.) However, we
want to change the
default directory to "A" as well.  Therefore, hit the = key first,
then type A: and hit Enter
twice.  Your default directory is now "A".  From now on if you want
to list the files on the
"A" drive since "A" is the default directory, simply hit F5 twice.

The screen is going to clear, and you are going to see a mostly
blank screen with something
that resembles this at the top:

01-01-80  12:35a    Directory: A:\*.*
Document Size: 13,321    Free:     362,268 Used:  0
Files:    0

     .    Current   <Dir>     | .. Parent    <Dir>

Up top you will see the date, time, current directory, size of the
current file, how much
space there is left on the disk, how much disk space is used, and
how many files on the disk
you have.  You have no files since you haven't saved anything yet. 
Press F1 to get back to
your document.

     NOTE: The F1 key is the cancel key.  Hitting F1 will cancel
just about anything and
     get you back to the document, although you might have to hit
it more than once.
     Use it whenever you have to get out of a function.
Saving your Document

When you are in your document, press F10.  The status line will
read Document to be
saved:.  Now type in the name of the file as you want it saved, in
eight letters or less.  For
now, please call the file EXAMPLE.  Then hit Enter.  After a few
moments, the document
will be saved on the disk in the "A" drive.  If the "A" drive had
not been your default
directory, you would have had to precede the name with A:.

Manipulating Files

Press F5 twice to get a listing of the "A" drive again.  Now you
will see the file called
EXAMPLE on the screen in the left column.  This means that the file
has been saved to
disk and can be retrieved again later.  If there were more than one
file, you would see that
the files are organized alphabetically.

Notice that there is a shaded bar at the top of the left column. 
This is known as the
selection bar, because the file that you move the bar over is the
file that you are going to
select.  Practice moving the bar around with the cursor keys.

At the bottom of the screen are ten options that you can choose
from.  We are going to go
through those one at a time.  Notice that for each option, there
are two characters in
boldface.  For example, the first option looks like this: 1 -
Retrieve.  The two shaded
characters are "1" and "R".  This means that you can choose the
Retrieve option by pressing
either "1" or "R".

1 - Retrieve - This will bring into memory the file that the
selection bar is currently over.
If you already have a file in memory, as is the case now,
WordPerfect will ask Retrieve into
current document?  If you hit "N", the procedure will be aborted. 
If you hit "Y", the file will
be loaded into your current document right where the cursor was
when you went to list the
files.  This is a way that you can merge two documents together. 
(See Function Maps.)

2 - Delete - This will erase the currently selected file.  You will
be asked for confirmation
before the file is erased, and you will have to hit "Y" or "N".

3 - Move/Rename - This will allow you to rename the selected file. 
If you pressed this, you
would see New name:  You would then simply type in the new name of
the file and it would
be changed.  (For experienced DOS users, if you had preceded the
name with a drive and
directory, the file would be moved to that directory.)

4 - Print - This will print the selected file to the default
printer.  I strongly discourage using
this option, as you should always load a file into memory first
before you print it to allow
WordPerfect to do some formatting of the document.
5 - Short/Long Display - This is a useless feature of WordPerfect
5.1, similar to the mouse

6 - Look - This allows you to examine the selected file without
loading it into memory.  You
can not edit or print a file that you are looking at with this

7 - Other Directory - If you choose this option, a message will
appear on the status line
similar to that which appears when you press F5.  You can switch to
another drive or
directory with this option by typing in the new directory name and
hitting Enter twice.
Please note that if you use this option, the directory you choose
automatically becomes the
default directory.

8 - Copy - When you choose this option a message in the status line
will say Copy this file
to:.  Enter the new name of the file.  For example, if we wanted a
new copy of the
EXAMPLE file called LETTER, we would type in LETTER and hit Enter. 
You would then
have two identical files with different names, which is handy if
you want to edit a file while
keeping a copy of the original.  Notice that the new filename is
not displayed yet.  This is
because WordPerfect needs to re-read the disk in the "A" drive. 
Press 7 and hit Enter twice
to have WordPerfect list all the files on the "A" drive.  (For
experienced DOS users, if you
had preceded the name with a drive and directory, the file would be
copied to that

N - Name Search - This can be useful if you have a lot of files on
one drive.  Hit the N key.
Now if you were to type any letter, WordPerfect would move the
selection bar to the first
file it found with that letter as its first letter.  For example,
if you hit "W" WordPerfect
would go to the first file to begin with a "W".  If you then hit
"A", WordPerfect would move
to the first file that began with "WA".  Hit Enter to get out of
this mode.

Option 9 - Find

The 9th option, Find, is the most useful and complex of the ten
options.  What this does is
to help you find a specific file that you've forgotten the name of
by narrowing down the
number of files that are displayed one step at a time.  If you
press 9, you will have a list of
search types that you can perform, which we will go through in a
moment.  After you choose
a search type, you will be asked to type in a Word pattern.  This
can be a word, a phrase,
or even a couple of letter that WordPerfect should be looking for. 
WordPerfect will scan
all of the files, and will then display all of the files that match
the search you just did.  You
can then narrow down the field even further, and keep doing so
until you've figured out
which file it is.  (See Function Maps.)

1 - Name - This will search the names of all the files.

2 - Doc Summary - This will search all of the document summaries of
all the files,
something we have not gotten into yet.

3 - First Pg - This will search the first page of every file.

4 - Entire Doc - This will search the whole of every file.

5 - Conditions - Specify what conditions a file must meet to be
searched.  This is pretty
much a useless option.  The only thing I like about it is the third
option on the Conditions
menu, which allows you to chose the creation dates of the files
that you want to search,
which is useful if you know around what date you created the file.

6 - Undo - This will undo the last search performed.

Exiting WordPerfect

While you are in your document, you can exit out of WordPerfect by
hitting F7.  When you
press this key, a message on the left of the document will say Save
Document (Y/N).  A
display on the right side of the status line will tell you whether
or not you have changed the
text at all since you last saved the file.  If you press "Y", you
will be asked for the name of
the file to save it under.  Press Enter if you want to save it
under the name that you last
used.  After you save the file, or tell WordPerfect that you do not
want to save the file, you
will be asked whether or not you want to exit WordPerfect.  If you
do, you will be returned
to DOS.  If you do not, you will be sent back to a blank screen. 
Press F1 if you wish to go
back to editing the document.

There are a number of ways to change the appearance of your
document.  These are on a
menu you can get to by hitting Shift-F8.  There are four options to
choose from, Line, Page,
Document, and Other.  We will go through these one at a time.

First of all, press 1 to see the Line menu.


The first choice in the Line menu is Hyphenation.  If you press 1
you will be able to choose
whether you want hyphenation by pressing "Y" or "N".  If you turn
on hyphenation, words
at the ends of lines will be broken into two with a hyphen.  I
never recommend using this
feature, because it makes WordPerfect go much slower, looks lousy,
and causes too many
headaches.  Please remember that, for almost all of these features
mentioned in this section,
they will only begin in the document where your cursor was when you
chose the option.  So
if you turn hyphenation on, the cursor should be at the beginning
of the document so that
you will have hyphenation for the entire document.

The Hyphenation Zone, option 2, is a rather strange thing and hard
to explain, so I won't
do anything but to say this: The smaller the numbers are, the more
that hyphenation is used.


Justification is how the lines of a document are aligned.  Standard
letters are left-justified,
which means that all of the lines are aligned with the left margin. 
If you choose the
Justification option, number 3, you will have four types of
justification to choose from: Left,
Center, Right, and Full.  I just told you what Left is.  If you
choose Center, all of the lines
in the document will be centered.  Right, of course, will
vertically align all of the lines with
the right margin.  Full justification is the default mode.  This
will align the lines to both the
left and right margins, as this document is.  Full justification
looks really nice when you're
using proportional fonts, but lousy if you're using a standard font
like you are now.  With
non-proportional fonts I recommend left justification.  In fact,
let's make this document left
justified.  Get back to the document by hitting F1 a couple of
times, then move the cursor
to the very top of the document.  Now go back and choose left
justification.  (See Function

Line Height

Option 4, Line Height, is how you choose how much space there is
between lines.  (This is
not the same as Option 6, Line Spacing, where you choose single,
double, or triple spacing.)
If you choose this option you will be presented with two choices,
Manual and Auto.  Auto
is the default and is always recommended.  With Auto Line Height,
the height of the lines
will change as the font gets bigger or smaller.  If there comes a
circumstance where you
really need to make you're own line height, simply choose the
Manual option and enter the
line height that you want.

Line Numbering

Often documents need to have their lines numbered, as in many plays
or government
documents.  With the Line Numbering option, number 5, you can
choose to have your lines
numbered.  Press 5 and hit "Y" to turn line numbering on.  You will
then be presented with
a menu of five more choices.  The first one tells WordPerfect
whether or not to count blank
lines.  The second is the interval at which to put line numbers. 
The default is 1, which
means a line number will be printed on every line, but you can
change it so that a number
is printed every 2, 5, 10, etc. lines.  The third option decides
how far in from the left edge
of the paper (not the left margin) you want the number printed. 
The fourth option lets you
decide what number you want the numbering to begin at.  The fifth
option lets you choose
whether you want to restart the numbering on every page, or whether
you want the numbers
to keep on going.

Line Spacing

Option 6, Line Spacing, lets you choose what spacing you want.  The
default is 1, which
means single spacing.  You can choose 2 or 3 for double or triple
spacing.  Actually, you can
choose just about any number, such as 1.5 or 3.14 for different
shades of spacing.
Sometimes in this mini-manual I ask WordPerfect to use .96 spacing
so that I can fit all the
text onto one page.  (See Function Maps.)

Left and Right Margins

Option 7 will let you decide what margins you want on the left and
the right sides of the
paper.  The default is one inch each.  When you choose option 7,
simply enter the number
of inches you want the left margin to be.  Hit Enter, then enter
the number of inches in the
right margin.  (Note: If your measurements are not set on inches,
please hit the following
keys from the editing screen: Shift-F1, 3, 8, 1, ", 2, ", Enter,
Enter, Enter.  WordPerfect is
now set to inches.) (See Function Maps.)
Tab Stops

As I have said, Tab stops are set every half an inch.  However,
these can be changed with
option 8.  There are a number of options associated with making Tab

When you choose option 8 you will see a line of periods at the
bottom of the screen.  Below
the line are measurements and above the line are L's.  These L's
are spaced every half of
an inch.  What an L means is that when you hit Tab, the text you
type will come after the
Tab stop, i.e. the Tab stop will be on the left side of the text. 
This is what we consider a
normal Tab stop, but there are other kinds as well.  A C will put
the Tab stop in the middle
of the text, so that the text will be centered around the Tab stop. 
An R will align the text
so that the Tab stop is on the right of the text - the text will
move out to the left of the Tab
stop.  A D will align the characters to the first period or decimal
point that you type, which
is very handy if you're trying to line up sums of money.

By pressing "T" you get to choose what type of Tabs you are going
to have, Absolute or
Relative to Margin.  The default is Relative to Margin, which means
that the measurements
of the Tab stops are calculated after the left margin.  As the left
margin moves, so do the
Tab stops.  If you don't want the Tab stops to move as the left
margin moves, choose
Relative to Margin.

To clear all of the Tab stops, hit Ctrl-End.  To delete a single
Tab stop, move the cursor
over it and press the Delete key.  To insert a Tab stop, press the
appropriate letter to signify
the type of Tab stop that you would like.  To keep the changes that
you have made, press
F7.  To throw out the changes, press F1.

     NOTE: In the lower right hand corner of the Tab stop screen
you can see the words,
     "Press Exit when done." Well, if you look on your template,
you will see that the exit
     key is F7.  Often the WordPerfect instructions will call a key
by its function, not by
     its name.  For example, if you saw something saying, "Hit
Cancel," you would press
F1, since the template says that F1 is the Cancel button.

Widow/Orphan Protection

A widow is when the first line of a paragraph is placed at the end
of a page while the rest
of paragraph is on the next page.  An orphan is when the last line
of a paragraph is placed
at the beginning of a page, while the rest of the paragraph is on
the previous page.  Both
of these look extremely sloppy.  By choosing option 9 and pressing
"Y", you can eliminate
widows and orphans caused by Soft Page breaks.  WordPerfect will
move the Soft Page
breaks around so that you will not get either of these.  Note: 
This will not protect them
from Hard Page breaks.

Now move on to option 2 from the main menu, Page.
Center Page

By choosing the Center Page option, option 1, and hitting "Y" to
turn it on, the page that
the cursor was resting on at the time of choosing will be centered
vertically, so that there
is the same amount of space above and below the text.

Force Odd/Even Page

Option 2, Force Odd/Even Page, has a few obscure uses, none of
which I have run into.
There are a couple of options that we will run into later that
treat odd and even pages
differently, such as when you are setting up the document to be
bound.  If you choose this
option, you will be asked whether you want to force an odd or an
even page.  WordPerfect
will make sure that the page the cursor was on will be that type
page by inserting a Soft
Page break if necessary.

Headers and Footers

Options 3 and 4, Headers and Footers, are very useful.  Often
people want to put the same
information at the top or bottom of each page, such as their name
and the date.  You can
enter text into a header or a footer and that text will be inserted
on every page, moving the
upper or lower boundaries of the page to accommodate them.  Setting
up headers and
footers use the same process, so I will only deal with setting up

Choose option 3.  You can set up two different headers (so that you
can put one on even
pages and one on odd pages), so you will have a choice of Header A
or Header B.  When
you choose a header, you will then be given five choices: 1 -
Discontinue, 2 - Every Page,
3 - Odd Pages, 4 - Even Pages, 5 - Edit.  Choose option 1 if you
want to stop printing a
header that you have already created.  Choose option 5 if you want
to edit a header that
you have already created.  Choose option 2, 3, or 4 to decide which
pages you want the
header printed on.

Now the screen will go blank and you can type in whatever text you
want in the header, in
whatever style you'd like.  If you want to insert a page number
into the header, do so by
pressing Ctrl-B, which will appear on the screen as ^B.  When you
are done typing in text,
press F7.  The header will now be printed on the pages you chose
following the page on
which the cursor was resting when you chose the option.  (See
Function Maps.)

Top/Bottom Margins

The top and bottom margins, option 5, are chosen by the same manner
as the left and right
margins.  (See Function Maps.)
Page Numbering

Option 6 is the Page Numbering option.  When you press 6, you will
have a menu of four
choices.  Option 1 lets you choose a new page number for the page
that the cursor was
resting on.  This is so that your page number one does not have to
be your first page.
Option 2 lets you choose how the page number looks.  In this
option, press Ctrl-B where
you want the page number printed, which will appear on the screen
as ^B.  For example,
typing - ^B - for the style would make your page numbers look like
- 1 -.

Option 3 will insert a page number into the document wherever the
cursor is.  Option 4 lets
you choose the location of the page number.  When you press 4, you
are given a graphic
depiction of some pages with some numerals on them.  Those numerals
correspond to where
the page number will be printed.  For example, I print my page
numbers on the bottom
center of each page, so I chose number 6.  If you wanted the page
numbers on the upper
left corner for the even pages and the upper right corner for the
odd pages, you would
choose number 4.  Number 9 lets you turn the page numbering off. 
As a default, there is
no page numbering when you first begin a document.  (See Function

Paper Size/Type

This option, number 7, lets you choose what kind of paper you are
going to use.  The
default is 8 1/2" x 11" paper in Portrait orientation.  (Portrait
orientation is how you
normally hold a piece of paper, and Landscape orientation is when
the paper is turned on
its side, so that it is wider than it is long.) The other types of
paper you can choose from
are listed.  Move the selection bar over a type of paper and press
1 to select it.  When we
get to choosing a printer later on in the manual, the types of
paper available to you might
change.  If you want help on adding or editing types of paper, I
strongly recommend you use
the help function by pressing F3.  There is too much information
there for me to cover in
this manual.  (See Function Maps.)


Option 8, Suppress, lets you cancel the headers, footers, and page
numbers for the page that
cursor is resting on.  When you choose this option you will get a
menu of eight choices.
Option 1 will suppress all page numbers, headers, and footers for
that page.  Option 2 will
suppress headers and footers but will allow the page number to be
printed.  If option 3 has
a "Yes" next to it the page number will be printed at the bottom
center of the page, even
if the standard page numbering has been suppressed.  If you want to
suppress only certain
things, choose options 4-8.

Now go to the third option on the main menu, Document.  Completely
ignore the first three
options on the menu.  The first one is completely unimportant and
the second and third
ones are more easily accessible from other places in WordPerfect,
which we will get to later.

Redline Method

Redlining is another method of having text stand out.  We will get
to how to do redlining
later on.  With color printers, redlining usually means that you
will get a red underlining for
the phrase you want redlined.  However, most of us do not have
color printers, and
therefore need another method.  Choose option 4 and you will be
given three choices.
Option 1, Printer Dependent, is the default and should be chosen
only if you have a color
printer.  Option 2, Left, tells WordPerfect that you want a certain
character placed on the
left side of each line that you have redlined.  You will then be
given the opportunity to
choose that character.  Option 3, Alternating, lets you place the
character on the left on
even pages and the right on odd pages.

Document Summary

Option 5, Document Summary, lets you create some information about
the document.  This
information is never printed, it is solely for your own good.  I've
never found anyone that
actually used the Document Summary, but I suppose there have to be
a few of you.
Creating one is very straightforward, but if you need help then
choose the Document
Summary option and press F3 for help.

Other Options

I am quickly going to go over the options available to you in the
fourth option of the main
menu, Other.  If you have any questions regarding any of these
options, consult the Help

Advance lets you move the printing position a certain distance from
where the cursor is.
This is useful for printing forms, although I still prefer a
typewriter.  If you choose left, right,
up, or down, you will be prompted for a number of inches.  The
printing position of the
characters which come after this command will begin that number of
inches in the specified
direction from where the cursor was.  If you choose the line
option, you can specify how far
down the page from the top edge of the paper the printing should
begin, and if you chose
the position option you can specify how far along the line from the
left edge of the paper
the printing should begin.

Conditional End of Page is a command that lets you keep a certain
number of lines
together.  After you choose this option you will be prompted for a
number of lines.
However many lines you choose after the cursor will then not be
separated by a Soft Page

Decimal Align Character lets you choose what character will be
aligned if you create
decimal Tab stops.  The default is a period.  The Thousands
Separator tells WordPerfect
what separates each three digits in a number for the Math
functions, the default of which
is a comma.

Language lets you choose what language you want to work in.

Overstrike lets you choose between two and a handful of characters
that you want printed
over each other.  This can be useful if you want to show a word
being visibly X'd out,
although you would have to choose this option for every letter of
the word.  (See Strikeout.)

Printer Functions has a number of sub-commands.  Kerning tells
WordPerfect whether to
decrease the amount of white space between letters, which helps
compress the text and
makes full justification with non-proportional fonts look nicer. 
Printer Command lets you
send a specific set of characters that you got from your printer's
manual directly to the
printer, which can cause the printer to utilize a feature that
WordPerfect doesn't have.
Word and Letter Spacing lets you define how much space will be
between words and letters.
Justification Limits allows you to define how much of a line should
be filled before it is
justified.  Baseline Placement is for typesetters to determine
exactly where the baseline
should be printed.  Leading Adjustment determines how much space
should be put in
between lines with a Soft Return and a Hard Return.

Underline lets you decide whether or not the underlining feature
will underline spaces or
Tabs.  The default is that WordPerfect will underline spaces but
not Tabs.

Border Options lets you determine what kind of a border you are
going to have around
graphics that you have inserted into your document.

There are a number of ways to make WordPerfect more comfortable to
use, which I will
detail to you now.  All of these options are available with Setup,
which is Shift-F1.  If you
press this key, you will see the main Setup menu.

The Display

Option 2 from the main menu, Display, will bring you to a list of
five options that you can
choose to make your display more suited to your needs.  The first
option from this menu,
Colors/Fonts/Attributes, lets you choose how WordPerfect is going
to display the special
features on the screen.  When you choose this option, what will
come up onto your screen
is going to depend completely on what type of monitor you have. 
You will either be given
a list of six choices or a chart.  What we want to get to is the
chart.  If you have the menu
of six choices instead, press 1.  The chart that is now on the
screen lists how each style of
typing is going to be displayed on the screen, and the type of
chart will vary with the kind
of monitor you have.  On the left side of the chart is a list of
all the styles that WordPerfect
will display, and on the right is an example of how it will be
displayed.  If you have a
monochrome monitor, four columns of options will be displayed in
the middle of the screen
that you can turn on or off by moving the cursor down to the option
and pressing "Y" or "N".
The different combinations of these options will allow you to
tailor the styles to what suits
you.  If you have a color monitor, you will be able to choose the
foreground and background
colors of each style by moving the cursor down to the option and
pressing the appropriate
letter for the color you want.  A list of the letters and what
colors they correspond to is
given at the top of the screen.  When you are through selecting the
styles, press F7.  All of
the changes that you made will be saved as the default from now on.

Options 2 and 3 on the Display menu will let you choose the
Graphics Screen Type and the
Text Screen Type.  These you will probably never have to change,
since you selected what
type of monitor you have when you installed WordPerfect.  However,
if you get a new
monitor you can select either one of these options and have a list
of available monitors
displayed for you.  Move the selection bar over one of these
monitors and press 1 to select
that monitor.

I suggest you skip option 4, Menu Options, since that is almost
completely for the mouse,
which we are not using anyway.

Option 5, View Document Options, lets you choose what the screen
will look like when you
are viewing a document.  Viewing is a feature that lets you see
what your document is going
to look like when printed before you actually print it, and we will
get into that later.  There
are three options that you can choose from as you can see.  The
first two options discuss
whether the text should be in black and white, and I suggest you
keep these both on Yes.
Viewing a document looks nicer in black and white.  The third one
about boldface can be
changed to No.  Setting this to No will allow viewing the document
do display boldface in
wide letters.
Option 6, Edit-Screen Options, will bring you to a list of seven
more options that will affect
the document-editing screen.  Automatically Format and Rewrite is
important to keep at
Yes, since this will give you a better idea of how the document
will look.  Comments Display
will let you choose if you want your comments displayed, which
you will learn more about
later.  Filename on the Status Line will choose whether or not
the name of the file should
be displayed in the lower left corner of the screen.  You can add
in a Hard Return Display
Character so that you always know which Returns are soft and
which are hard.  If you
choose Ctrl-Enter for this option, a square block will become the
Hard Return character,
which I prefer to use.  Merge Codes Display will let you decide
whether the merge codes,
which you will learn about later, will be displayed on the
screen.  Reveal Codes Window Size
lets you decide how big the bottom window will be when you reveal
the markers with the
Alt-F3 key.  The default is usually 5, but I like to keep mine a
little larger, at about 10 or
12.  Side-by-side Columns Display will let you decide whether or
not to display the columns
like they would appear on the paper if you are in column mode.  I
like having this one set
at No, but that is a personal preference.

Environment Controls

The third option on the main menu is Environment Controls, which
will let you change
some of the operating procedures of WordPerfect.  If you choose
this option, you will be
given eight more options.

Option 1, Backup Options, is crucial for all computer users to set
to their own preference.
When you press this, you will see a screen detailing the two types
of backups that
WordPerfect does.  The first one is a timed backup which saves a
copy of the file you are
currently working on to the C:\WP51 directory every specified
number of minutes.  You can
choose whether you want these backups or not, and how long of an
interval you want
between them.  When I was writing this manual, I had timed backups
every five minutes
because I didn't want to risk my computer crashing, which it did a
couple of times.  If you
have to reboot the system, when WordPerfect is loaded it will tell
you that there is an old
backup file, and do you want to delete or rename it.  Choose the
Rename option, and type
in a short name for the file.  The file will be saved in the
C:\WP51 directory which you can
then retrieve.  This is a lifesaver of a function, don't be without
it.  The only disadvantage
is a small wait whenever WordPerfect saves the backup copy.  (See
Function Maps.)

The second backup is a backup of the original when a new copy of a
file is saved.  I never
use this feature but most people do.  If you edit a file and then
save the file to disk, the
previous version of the file will be saved with a .BK! extension. 
For example, our file
EXAMPLE would be changed to EXAMPLE.BK!.  You can not change or
edit a .BK! file,
but you can delete them or rename them so that you can edit them. 
The biggest reason I
don't like this option is that every file is saved twice, in
essence, meaning that each file is
taking up twice as much room as it has to.

Option 2, Beep Options, lets you choose if you want a beep sounded
on errors,
hyphenations, or search failures.  Turn all of them Off, believe
me.  That beeping is most
annoying thing WordPerfect Corporation ever invented.

Option 3, Cursor Speed, lets you choose the speed of the cursor in
terms of characters per
second.  In my opinion, the faster the cursor is the faster your
editing is, so I always set it
to the maximum number, which is 50 characters per second.  This is
a relative timing,
however, because a model XT computer is going to go a lot slower
than a model 386

Option 4, Document Summary/Management, can be almost completely
ignored.  If you are
really into writing document summaries, and I have never met anyone
who is, look through
the Help feature on this option.

Option 5, Fast Save, is an option which will cut down on the time
it takes WordPerfect to
save a file.  However, if the option is off, the size of the file
will be decreased since
WordPerfect will be able to compress the file as it saves it.  I
recommend having it set to

Don't change option 6, since external rules are necessary 99.99% of
the time, and I hope
that you are not going to use hyphenation anyway.  Likewise option

Option 8, Units of Measure, lets you change what WordPerfect
measures and displays your
document in.  The default is inches, but a lot of people use
centimeters as well.  (In this
manual I only talk about inches, sorry.) Notice that there are two
things you can change the
measurement settings for.  I recommend that you keep the same type
of measurement for
both of these settings, since it often gets confusing to look at
two different types of
measurements.  You can also set the measurement to points, which is
the size of a printed
"pixel", or to 1200th's of an inch, which I can't imagine anyone
wanting to stare at.

Initial Settings

The fourth option from the main menu lets you choose the Initial
Settings for any
WordPerfect document that you start up.  If there is a favorite
font you have, or a specific
set of margins and justification that you like to have on every
document you create, you can
use this option to list all of the codes that you want at the
beginning of each and every
document.  There are also some other things that you can set in
here.  When you choose
the Initial Settings option, you will be given a list of eight
options.  Ignore options 1, 3, 6,
and 7 completely.

Option 2, Date Format, lets you decide how you want the date
printed if you ask it to be
in your document.  If you choose this option, you will be given a
very self-explanatory screen
on how to set your date code to your preference.  Please know that
most of the world
considers us very strange for writing June 27, 1991.  Most places
you will see 27 June 1991
and 27/5/91, smallest to biggest like it should be.
Option 4 lets you decide whether you want to format documents for
the default printer.
Let's say that you write a document on your computer, but then edit
it on someone else's.
If this option is on and the printer that you had selected for your
computer does not match
the default printer for the other computer, your document will be
altered to fit the
specifications of the new computer.  I like having this one On.

Option 5 is the biggie which lets you create the initial markers. 
If you choose the Initial
Codes option the screen will turn into what should be familiar to
you as the Reveal Codes
screen.  You can now do most of the things that you are able to do
in the editing screen.
You can define any of the fonts (which we will learn later), set
the margins and the
justifications, set your page numbering, and just about anything
else.  The codes will now
be at the beginning of every document you create.  Hit F7 when you
are done typing the
codes.  (See Function Maps.)

Lastly, option 8, Print Options, lets you choose some of the
important characteristics for
WordPerfect's printing ability.  The options on this screen will
become the defaults for every
document you create from now on.  These options are rather
self-explanatory, but I will
discuss them later as we get into the specific functions that each
option deals with.

File Locations

WordPerfect has many files that it needs to save throughout the
course of editing your
document.  If you choose option 6, Location of Files, you can
define what directories these
files will be saved in.  For the Backup Files I have a
sub-directory of WP51 called DOCS
where I save all the backups, so I put in C:\WP51\DOCS.  The
macros, which we will
discuss later, are best saved in C:\WP51.  Options 3, 4, 5 are best
left to the defaults, since
the default directories will correspond to the way WordPerfect
installed itself on your hard
drive.  The Graphic Files setting is completely up to you.  Some
people have a separate
graphics sub-directory, but remember that WordPerfect puts all of
its pre-made graphics in
the C:\WP51 directory.  The Documents I always change to whatever
floppy disk I like to
use most, since this will become the basic default directory. 
Please note that if you change
this setting to a floppy disk you must have a disk in the drive
whenever you start up

WordPerfect has a very large Dictionary and Thesaurus available to
it.  The abilities of both
of these programs are phenomenal, and you should definitely use
them for all they are

Spell Checking

To spell check a document, press Ctrl-F2.  You will be presented
with six options.  Option
6, Count, will count all the words in the document without going
through spell checking.
Option 5, Look Up, will ask you to type in a word that you think is
misspelled and give you
some choices of different spellings.  If you have purchased and
installed a supplementary
dictionary that you wish to use in addition to the main one, Option
4 will let you tell
WordPerfect the name and location of that dictionary.  Options 3,
2, and 1 let you spell
check the word the cursor is resting on, the page the cursor is
resting on, or the whole

All of the first three options work exactly the same way, so I will
just assume you have
chosen to spell check the entire document.  WordPerfect will go
back to the beginning of
the document and start searching for things that the program tells
it are wrong.  If
WordPerfect comes upon a word that it believes is misspelled, it
will highlight the word.
Below the word it will list all of the options that it has found
that might be correct for that
word.  (If there are two many possible new spellings to fit on one
screen, you will have to
press Enter to see another screenful.) If you see the correct
spelling of the word in the list,
press the capital letter which is next to that word and the word
will be replaced.
WordPerfect will then go on to find the next incorrect word.  (See
Function Maps.)

There are six other options at the bottom of the screen when
WordPerfect finds a
misspelled word.  Option 1, Skip Once, will tell WordPerfect that
you don't want this word
corrected, but if it finds the word again you want to be notified. 
Option 2, Skip, will skip
this word every time it finds it in the document.  Option 3, Add,
will add that word to your
personal dictionary, which is saved on the hard disk and used every
time you use the spell
checker.  Option 4, Edit, will briefly return the cursor to the
document so that you can
change the mistake if you don't find the correct word on the list. 
Press F7 when you are
done editing.  Option 6, Ignore Numbers, will tell WordPerfect not
to see correct words with
numbers at the beginning or the end of the word as misspelled. 
(For example, with the
Ignore Numbers feature on, program12 and 78push would both be
looked at as correct
words.) You can cancel spell checking at any time by hitting F1.

Very rarely in a language does a word occur twice in a row, so
WordPerfect is programmed
to look for this.  If WordPerfect finds double words it will
highlight them and give you four
options, numbered 2-5 for some reason.  Option 2 will skip this
occurrence of double words.
Option 3 will delete the second word.  Option 4 will let you edit
the document, and option
5 will prevent WordPerfect from looking for double words.

A new feature in WordPerfect 5.1 is the ability to look for strange
casing, upper and
lowercase letters that don't fit the norm.  If it finds a word with
strange casing, you will have
four options, numbered 2-5 again.  Option 2 will skip the word. 
Option 3 will replace the
word with whatever WordPerfect has in its dictionary as the correct
casing for the word.
Option 4 will let you edit the document, and option 5 will disable
the case checking.


The electronic Thesaurus on WordPerfect is very well constructed. 
Put your cursor over the
word that you want to change.  Now hit Alt-F1.  WordPerfect will
display all of the
synonyms for the word that you chose, as well a few antonyms if it
has any on file.  Notice
that there are three columns on the screen.  This is so that you
can view three separate sets
of synonyms at a time.  The synonyms of the word you chose occupy
the first column, and
there is a capital letter next to each word.  To the left of some
of the words there is a small
dot, called a bullet.  If there is a bullet next to the word it
means that you can look up the
synonyms to that word as well.  To look up a new list of synonyms,
press the letter that
appears next to the word with a bullet next to it.  In the second
column will appear the new
list of synonyms.  You can move back and forth between these lists
with the left- and right-
arrow keys.  If you want to look up a word that is not on the list,
choose option 3.  You will
then be asked to type in the word that you want to look up.  If you
want to clear a column,
choose option 4 at the bottom of the screen and the column that you
are currently on will
be erased.

To go back into the document and look at some text, choose option
2.   You will then be
able to move around the document at will.  When you are ready to
go back to the
Thesaurus, press F7.  To replace the document word with a word in
the list, choose option
1.   You will then be asked to press the letter next to the word
you want to replace it with.
The word will be replaced and you will be returned to your
document.  To leave the
Thesaurus at any time, press F1.  (See Function Maps.)

Shift-F7 will get you into the print options.  When you press this
key, you will be greeted
with a menu of seven choices and some options in the lower half of
the screen.

Options 1, 2, 3, and 5 will all print a file to the selected
printer.  Option 1 will print the
entire document.  Option 2 will print only the page that the cursor
is resting on.  Option 3
will print a file on the disk.  If you choose this option you will
be asked for the name of the
document.  (As I have said before in the DISK USAGE section, I do
not recommend
printing a file that is not in memory.) Option 5 will let you
define a range of pages that you
want to print.  If you choose option 5, you will be asked to type
the beginning and ending
pages separated by a dash, i.e. 3-17.

When you print a file, be sure that your printer is On Line.  As
long as you have the right
printer selected (see Printer Options below) your printer should
have no problem handling
the document.

Control Printer

While a document is being printed there are some functions of the
printer that you can
control.  From the Printer menu press 4 to see the Control Printer
options.  A screen will
come up that displays information about the current print "job",
which means the document
that is being printed.  Listed below this are the other print jobs
which are waiting to go to
the printer.  The reason that you can view this screen is because
when WordPerfect prints
something, it portions off a small section of the computer's memory
to just deal with printing
the document.  While WordPerfect is dealing with printing a file,
you can go back into the
editing mode and work with your document.  Or, by pressing Shift-F3
and switching to Doc
2, you can load in and edit another document.  You can not exit out
of WordPerfect or the
document that is being printed while printing is going on.  Also,
notice that the printer will
slow down your editing, and your editing will also slow down the
printer.  If you try to print
another document while a file is being printed the file will be put
on the list of print jobs
and will be printed after the current document is finished

At the bottom of the screen there are five options.  Option 1 lets
you cancel the current job
or any job that is on the list.  Option 2 lets you take a file that
is on the list of waiting print
jobs and change it to first on the list so that it will be printed
next.  Option 3 lets you
display the jobs waiting to be printed if the list is so long as to
go off the screen.  Options
4 and 5 let you stop a file currently being printed, then resume

View Document

Option 6 from the main menu, View Document, is what makes
WordPerfect worth the
aggravation.  By choosing this option, you will be able to look at
your document exactly as
it will appear when you print it.  (This option will not work if
you do not have a monitor
and a driver which is capable of supporting graphics.) The page
which will appear on the
screen is the page that your cursor is currently resting on.

You can change pages by the PgUp, PgDn, Ctrl-Home, and all other
keys that normally
move you around in a document.  The arrow keys will also work, but
you must be zoomed
in on a page for them to be of any use.  Notice at the bottom of
the screen are four options.
You are currently seeing the third option, Full Page.  Option 4
will show you the facing
pages as if you were looking at the document like a book.  Option
1 will display the page
at 100% its actual size, so that the paper on the screen will be
the same size as the paper
from the printer.  Remember that when you zoom in not all of the
page can fit on the
screen at one time.  Option 2, 200%, will let you look close up at
the document.  Press F1
when you are finished viewing your document.  (See Function Maps.)

Printer Options

At the bottom of the main menu are some printing options that you
can set for the current
document.  These settings will be saved with your document.  If you
notice, these are the
same options we saw when we were in the menu from Shift-F1, 4 -
Initial Settings, 8 - Print
Options.  If you change any of these settings on that menu instead
of this one, those settings
will be accepted as the defaults for any future document.

Select Printer lets you choose what type of printer you have.  If
you choose this option you
will see a list of all of the printers you have selected.  Move the
selection bar and press 1
to choose a different printer.  To get a list of the other printers
that WordPerfect supports,
press 2.  To edit the settings of a printer, to change the printer
port, or to tell WordPerfect
that you have bought some cartridges for the printer, press 3.  To
get information about any
specific printer, press 6.  If you have bought new internal fonts
for the printer or changed
something else inside of it, press 7 to update the printer file.

Binding Offset is for those people who want to print documents with
facing pages.
Whatever measurement you choose for this option, the text on the
page will be shifted that
much to the left on even-numbered pages and that much to the right
on odd-numbered
pages.  This facilitates binding a document.

Number of Copies had better be obvious.

Multiple Copies can be generated either by WordPerfect or by the
printer.  All this means
is, "When the job is finished printing once, does WordPerfect or
the printer get the job of
doing it over again?" If the document is very short you can select
that the printer does it
so that WordPerfect won't have to spend its time making many
copies, but if the document
is of any real length then the printer won't have enough memory to
handle it.  It's best to
keep this option on WordPerfect.

Text Quality and Graphics Quality each have four options available
to them: Do Not Print,
Draft, Medium, and High.  The better the quality, the longer it
takes to print.  If you're
printing a rough draft of a document, just keep the settings at
Draft as well.


There are many ways to make your text look different.  We have
already examined the two
most common ones, underlining and boldface.  Let's take a look at
all the rest.  If you press
Ctrl-F8 you will see the options available to you.


You can change the size of your print to seven different levels. 
Press 1 from the main menu
to see the sizes available to you.  Each one of these operates just
like boldface and
underlining.  When you turn the style on a marker is placed to tell
WordPerfect to begin
it at the cursor.  You can now type in whatever text you want and
it will be in the selected
style.  By reselecting the style you will place a marker telling
WordPerfect to turn it off

     NOTE: Press Alt-F3 to reveal the markers.  Now press F8.  What
do you see?  You
     see both of the underline markers put on the screen right
away, the one to turn it on
     and the one to turn it off.  However, the cursor is sitting
right on top of the marker
     to turn underlining off.  Type some text.  What happens?  The
marker to end
     underlining is pushed to the right of the text, so that all of
the text appears between
     the two markers.  Get out of underlining by hitting F8 again. 
What happened?  The
     cursor just jumped a spot to the right so that it was out of
the underlining zone.
     What this means for you is that you can get out of any kind of
style simply by hitting
     the right-arrow key to move out of the style zone.  This saves
you from having to
     reselect the style to cancel it, because some of these styles
take a number of
     keystrokes to activate.

If you would like to try out some of the styles, make a few lines
with each one in a different
style.  Please note that some of the sizes might not work for your
particular font.  Some
fonts only come in one or two sizes, so don't be upset if the Extra
Large feature comes out
the same size as the Large one.

Now you may ask yourself how WordPerfect decides how big each one
of these options is.
Well, to get back to something we were looking at earlier, hit
Shift-F1, 4, 8.  Towards the
lower half of the screen you will see the percentages that
WordPerfect reduces or enlarges
the font as compared with your base font.  Any of these percentages
can be changed and
will be accepted as the default from then on.


The appearance of the text works in the same way as the size, with
markers to turn them
on and off.  Press 2 on the main menu to see the nine styles.  As
with the sizes, all of these
might not work with your printer.  Each one is self-explanatory
except for the redlining and
the strikeout.  The redlining, as I have explained before, is
something more often used for
color printers, but as you saw on the Format, Document menu
(Shift-F8, 3) we could define
a character that would appear on the left of any line that was
supposed to be redlined if we
had a black-and-white printer.  Strikeout will take any text within
the strikeout zone and put
an "X" over each letter.

Base Font

The font is the most important thing that you will select when
using WordPerfect.  If you
select this option from the main menu you will see a list of all of
the fonts available to you,
which will depend on the type of printer and what cartridges you
have told WordPerfect that
you have.  Here are some tips for choosing a font:

     1)   If the font has the letters cpi after the number, this
means that it is a non-
proportional font.  The number is the characters per inch of the
font, and the larger
     the number is the smaller the font is.

     2)   If the font has the word Pitch in it, this means that the
font is proportional.  The
     number is a representation of the size of the font.  The
larger the number is the
     larger the font is.

     3)   If the font has the word (Scalable) after it, it means
that the letters can be any
     size, and you will have to tell WordPerfect the size.  The
number you enter is
     equivalent to the Pitch of a proportional font.  A scalable
font is proportional.

Each font looks completely different from the others.  This
document was printed with
Times Roman 12 Pitch, and the header on each page was printed with
Universal 7 Pitch.
That is, if whoever printed out this document uses an HP Laserjet
III. Once a font is turned
on, that will be the font until a new one is turned on.

Print Color

The fifth option, Print Color, is only available to you if you have
a color printer, of course.
You can select a color by pressing the appropriate number.  Print
colors last until a new one
is chosen.  Notice that each color is a mixture of the three
primary colors: red, yellow, and
blue.  If for some reason you do not like the current mixture, you
can change the
percentages to suit your taste and those will be taken as the
default from then on.

One very useful function when it comes to working with text is
making a block.  A block is
a set of boundaries that you define that encases a certain amount
of text.  You can then do
so many things to that block of text that I'm not even sure I can
list them all.

To start a block, put the cursor at the spot you want the block to
begin.  Now press Alt-F4.
You will see on the left side of the status line that a message
saying Block on will blink.
This is your notice you are in block mode.  Now move your cursor to
where you want the
block to end.  The block is now defined.  Do not hit Alt-F4 again. 
If you do so you will turn
off the block.  Now that you have defined the block, you can change
any of the attributes
of the block.  Please note that you can also start at the end of
the section of text you want
to block, not just the beginning.

Changing a Block's Attributes

When you have a block defined, there is no limit to the things
about that block you can
change.  For example, if you have a block defined and hit F8, the
underlining key, the text
inside the block will be underlined.  This saves you from having to
delete text you've already
typed in if you want it underlined.  Let me briefly go over some of
the other keys you can
hit.  Remember, many keys on the keyboard react differently if a
block is on or off, because
WordPerfect knows that anything you do is going to affect only the

F6 - Make the text in the box boldface.
Ctrl-F8 - Change the size or appearance of the blocked text. 
Shift-F8 - Protect a block so that it can not be broken by a Soft
Page break.
Ctrl-F2 - Spell check the blocked text.
Shift-F6 - Center the block.
Backspace - Delete the block.
Shift-F7 - Print the block.
F10 - Save the block to a new filename.
Shift-F3 - "Switch" the case of the blocked text to upper or

Many of the commands that I go over in the future will have
different functions depending
on whether a block has been defined or not.  As soon as you change
an attribute of a block,
the block turns off.

The Ctrl-F4 key will bring you to the options of moving and copying
text.  This command
functions quite differently whether a block is on or off.

If a block is defined and you hit Ctrl-F4, you will be given three
options, Block, Tabular
Column, and Rectangle.  If you choose option 1, you will be working
with the block as you
have defined it.  If you choose option 2, you can work with a
column that you have created
with Tabs, not with the column mode.  If you choose this mode you
should have defined
your block with the start of it being in the upper left corner of
the column and the end of
it in the lower right corner.  If you choose option 3, WordPerfect
will not deal with the
block exactly as you defined it.  It will take the beginning and
ending points of the block and
create a rectangle from the two points, which might not encompass
all of the text that a
normal block would have.

If you have not defined a block, you will be given four options,
Sentence, Paragraph, Page,
and Retrieve.  Ignore Retrieve for the moment.  If you choose
Sentence WordPerfect will
select as its "block" the sentence on which your cursor is resting. 
Likewise for the
Paragraph and Page options.

Moving and Copying the Block

Now that you have given WordPerfect a block of text in one manner
or another you are
ready to do something with it.  After you choose your block you
will be given four more
choices: Move, Copy, Delete, and Append.  Ignore Append for the
moment.  If you choose
Move, the text will be deleted from its present location.  Your
cursor will be returned to the
document and a message on the status line will read, Press Enter to
Retrieve.  Now move
your cursor to wherever you want the text to go.  Hit Enter and
text will be placed wherever
the cursor is.  Copy works just the same as Move, except the text
is not deleted from its
original location.  If you choose Delete the block will be erased.

The Append option is rather interesting.  If you choose this option
you will be able to take
the block of text and attach it to the end of a document that is
stored on disk.  When you
choose this option you will be asked for the name of the file. 
WordPerfect then changes
the file on the disk so that a copy of the block is appended to the

When you move or copy a block that text is stored in a buffer. 
This buffer is a little chunk
of memory that holds the text until it is called for again.  When
you finish the moving or
copying, the nice thing is that the text is not deleted from the
buffer.  In fact, the text is not
deleted until you try to put something else in the buffer.  What
this means to you is that you
can retrieve text more than once to make multiple copies.  If you
have put text into the
buffer, simply press Ctrl-F4 and choose the Retrieve option.  The
last text put in the buffer
will be put wherever the cursor is.  (See Function Maps.)

Often times there are key words or phrases in a document that you
want to search for.  Or
maybe there is a person's name that you've constantly spelled wrong
and need to replace
every occurrence of it with the correct spelling.  Well,
WordPerfect can do it quite easily.
Press F2 to start a search.  In the status line you will be asked
for the word or word pattern
that you wish to search for.  You can put in just about anything,
including codes for special
styles.  When you are done with that, press F2 to begin the search. 
Do not press Enter to
begin the search.  If you press Enter WordPerfect will assume that
you want to search for
the given word when it has a Hard Return after it.  The search will
progress forward from
the point of the cursor.  When WordPerfect finds the text it will
display the point of the
document where it found it and put the cursor right over it.  To
search for the same text
again, press F2 twice.  To search the document backwards from the
cursor instead of
forwards, press Shift-F2.  (See Function Maps.)

Alt-F2 will let you search for text and replace it with something
else.  When you press the
key WordPerfect will ask you whether or not you want to Confirm. 
If you hit "Y",
WordPerfect will ask you whether you want each occurrence of the
word replaced.  If you
hit "N", it will replace everything without asking.  You will then
be asked for the word
pattern you want to search for.  Press F2 when you are finished
typing that in.  Then type
what you want to replace it with.  WordPerfect will search the
document forward from the
point of the cursor.  There is no way to do a search and replace
backwards.  (See Function

Footnotes and endnotes are small notes set apart from the document
which give additional
information or refer to another text.  The only difference between
them is that the footnote
comes at the bottom of the page and the endnote comes at the end of
the document.  The
main footnote menu is at Ctrl-F7.

To create a footnote, choose option 1, Footnote.  You will then be
given four more options
on the Footnote menu.  Choose option 1, Create.  You will be placed
in an editing screen
with the number 1 on the screen.  Type in whatever text you want to
be in the footnote.
(Note that the number of the footnote will be small and in
superscript when actually
printed.) When creating a note, you can use all of the available
commands, including
changing the font so that the footnote looks smaller than the other
text.  When you are done
creating the footnote, hit F7.  A footnote marker will be inserted
into the text, as well as
a small, superscripted numberal.  The footnote will be printed at
the bottom of the page,
set apart from the normal text by a few spaces and a solid line.

To edit a footnote, choose option 2 from the Footnote menu, Edit. 
You will then be asked
for the number of the footnote you want to edit, after which you
will be able to edit the
footnote.  Option 3 from the Footnote menu, New Number, will let
you break the
consecutive sequence of the footnote numbers.  The fourth Footnote
menu option, Options,
gives you nine different choices of how you want to style the

Creating and editing endnotes, option 2 from the main menu, work
exactly the same way
as creating and editing footnotes.  All of the commands are
duplicated.  Option 3 from the
main menu, Endnote Placement, will let you decide if you want an
endnote someplace
besides at the end of the document.  You might want an endnote to
come at the end of a
chapter instead.  Move the cursor to where you want the endnotes
and choose option 3 from
the main menu.  This is where all of the endnotes that have not
been printed up until then
will be printed.  The only prompt WordPerfect will ask you is if
you want you restart
endnote numbering at the next page.  Once you reply, WordPerfect
will insert a box and a
Hard Page break.  The box is there because WordPerfect will not
know how much space
the endnotes will take up, since an undetermined number of endnotes
will be put there.  In
order to print the document with the endnotes, you must use the
Generate command (Alt-
F5, 6, 5).  This should be the last command you give WordPerfect
before printing the
document.  If you do not use the Endnote Placement feature, you
will not need to use the
Generate command.

Macros are very nice, and I have more of them defined than I can
count.  A macro is a
keystroke or a word that, when pressed, will set a specific chain
of events in motion.  For
example, I have my Alt-W key set up so that whenever I hit it, the
word WordPerfect will
appear.  After all, I don't want to type that a thousand times, do
I?  I also have my Alt-O
key configured so that it will take the line above the cursor and
make it centered, boldfaced,
underlined, very large, and all in capitals.  That takes about
thirty keystrokes which I have
reduced to one.

There are two kinds of macros you can define.  One are Alt-Key
macros which you can get
with one keystroke.  You can have a separate macro for each letter
of the alphabet.  The
other are word macros that you need to do a little more typing to

To create a macro, press Ctrl-F10.  You will then be asked for the
name of the macro.
Press and hold the Alt key and hit a letter, or type in a word that
you would like to call the
macro.  After you do this, you will be asked for a description of
the macro, which I never
type in.  You will then be put back into editing mode, with a
blinking message on the left
of the status line reading Macro Def.  Anything you do from now on
will become part of the
macro.  When you are finished typing the macro, press Ctrl-F10
again.  You have now saved
the macro.  If the macro was an Alt-Key macro you can get it by
pressing Alt and the key.
If it was a word macro, press Alt-10 and type in the name of the

If you try to define a macro that already exists you will be asked
whether you want to
replace it, edit it, or see the description.  If you decide you
want to edit it, you will see a
screen with a box in the middle that shows you what the macro looks
like.  The first code
in the macro is always {DISPLAY OFF} so that WordPerfect doesn't
waste time by showing
you every step of the macro, just the finished product.  You can
delete this if you want to
see the macro in action.  You can now change the codes and insert
your own.  There are
some codes that are available only in macros, and you can move
through a list of those by
pressing Ctrl-PgUp.  The codes are quite obscure, and you can learn
more about them by
reading the WordPerfect 5.1 manual.

Remember when defining a macro that, if you are using special codes
and markers, you
need to make the macro definition as universal as possible.  For
example, let's say you
created a macro that would underline and center the line above the
cursor.  When you
defined the macro, the line was simply one word: Define.  What a
lot of people will do is
to move the arrow up to the line, start their block, then move to
the end of the line to finish
the block by hitting the right arrow key six times.  Well, from
then on this command will
only work if your line is six letters long.  What you should do
instead is to press End to have
the cursor automatically jump to the end of the line.  It's stuff
like this that makes defining
macros a little more tricky than it might seem.  (See Function

WordPerfect versions 5.0 and 5.1 support the addition of graphics
into your document, like
this one:

Nice, isn't it?  This graphic was created by the people at
WordPerfect Corporation and is
on your C:\WP51 directory under the name TELPHONE.WPG.  They put
about twenty-five
of these on that directory, each one of which has the extension
.WPG.  You can buy more
pictures commercially, just make sure that the files have the .WPG
extension on them.  You
can also create your own pictures with the companion program,
DrawPerfect, a bad but
usable drawing program.


Press Alt-F9 to view the types of graphics boxes to choose from. 
Options 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6
are types of graphics boxes which we will get into in a minute. 
Option 5, Line, is completely
unlike the other five options so we will get into that first.  This
option will create a
horizontal or vertical line in your document.  If you choose this
option, you will see that you
can create or edit either type of line.  (Please note that if you
edit a line, your cursor has
to be positioned after the line appears, don't ask me why.) After
you choose a type of line
to create you will see a list of five options.

If you are creating a horizontal line, the horizontal position can
be set to Full (spanning
from left margin to right margin), against the left margin, against
the right margin, centered
between the margins, or you can manually set the position of the
line.  You can also set the
vertical position to either Baseline or you can manually set the
position.  If you choose
baseline, the line will appear directly below the current line of
text.  The options are the
same for vertical lines, except in reverse.  For a vertical line,
the vertical position can be set
to Full, Top, Bottom, Center, or you can set the position manually. 
The horizontal position
can be set to be against the left margin, the right margin, between
columns (in column
mode), or you can set the position manually.

Once you have chosen the positioning of the line you can choose the
length of the line,
option 3.  If the position of the line has been set to Full, the
line length can not be changed
since it will span the entire page.  The width of the line can be
altered freely.  The last
option, Gray Shading, lets you control the blackness of the line. 
The default is 100%, which
means the line will be pure black.  Once you have set a line, you
can view what it looks like
with the View Document command on the Print menu.  (Shift-F7,
Option 6.)

Graphics Boxes

From the main menu (Alt-F9) you can choose five different types of
boxes: Figure, Table,
Text, User, or Equation.  Here's the stickler: The type of box you
choose does not matter.
All five boxes are the same.  For example, you can have an equation
in a text box with no
problems.  The reason that they have five different types of boxes
is that, after you choose
a type of box, you will given nine options to choose from.  The
defaults for these nine
options will be adjusted depending on what type of box you want to

When you choose one of these types of boxes you will be given the
choice of creating one,
editing a previous one, making a new number, or setting the
options.  The options, number
4, are very important to set.  This lets you decide whether there
is a border around the
graphics, how much of a margin will be inside and outside the
border, how the graphics are
numbered, and how the captions will look.  Once you set those,
press Enter to go back to
the previous menu and choose option 1, Create.

Option 1, Filename, is the name of the graphic that you want to
import from disk.  For
example, the filename for my telephone was TELPHONE.WPG.  You also
have to tell
WordPerfect what disk and directory it is getting the graphic from. 
I didn't have to say
anything besides TELPHONE.WPG only because in the Location of Files
option on the
Setup menu (Shift-F1) I had told WordPerfect that the default
location for my graphics files
was C:\WP51.  When you type in the filename WordPerfect will go
look for the picture.
After you choose the picture, the rest of the options might very
well change, depending on
the specifications of the picture.

Option 2, Contents, is just going to tell you what WordPerfect
found to put inside the box,
and you will probably never need to change it.  However, there are
some advantages to
changing to a different type.  Graphic and Graphic on Disk are two
sides of the same coin.
The first one will save the picture information as part of the
file, meaning that the graphic
has now been completely incorporated.  The second one will not
incorporate the graphic as
part of the file.  Whenever you load in the file, WordPerfect will
look for the graphic in the
specified directory.  This means that you cannot transport the file
to another computer
without bringing the separate graphic file with you.  A Text box
will allow you to change the
appearance of text inside the box without affecting the text in the
rest of the document.
Equation will let you access the equation editor instead of the
graphic editor when you
choose option 9.

Option 3 lets you put a Caption directly below the graphics box. 
If you choose this option
you will be put into a text-entering mode, from which you can
access just about every text-
editing feature, such as font changes.  Nothing you do to the
caption will affect the rest of
the document.  The first thing in the caption will be the number of
the figure that you have
created.  You can erase this if you don't want it in the caption. 
When you are done typing
in the caption, press F7.

Option 4 lets you choose where you are going to anchor the graphic. 
If you choose
Paragraph, the graphic will stay with the text around it.  If you
select Page the graphic will
remain at the fixed location of the page regardless of where the
text moves.  Character
moves the figure around like a single character, allowing you to
move it at will.

Option 5, Vertical Position, is dependent on the anchor type.  If
the anchor is Paragraph
you can enter an amount that the graphic will be offset from the
paragraph.  If the anchor
is Page you can enter how far down the page the graphic will start,
or move it flush against
the top or bottom margin.  If Character is the anchor then you will
select whether the rest
of the line is flush with the top, middle, or bottom of the

Option 6, Horizontal Position, is also dependent on anchor type: 
Paragraph - Flush with the
left margin, the right margin, the center of the page, or the full
page; Page - A certain
distance away from a margin or a column; Character - A horizontal
position is not

Option 7, Size, changes what size the box is going to be.  The
width and height can each be
set manually or they can be set to automatically adjust to the size
of the graphic.  If you
manually set either setting the other one will be changed to keep
the shape of the graphic
intact.  If you choose the Set Both option, the shape of the
graphic will be altered to fit
whatever size box you create.  If you choose Auto Both WordPerfect
resets the size of the
box to what it was when the graphic was originally created.

Option 8 will let you decide whether the text should wrap around
the graphic box or not.
If no, then the text will keep on printing just as if there was no
graphic box there, so that
the graphic and the text will overlap each other.

Option 9 lets you Edit the graphic.  There are separate editors for
graphics and equations.
If you are editing a graphic, you can move the figure, scale it
horizontally or vertically,
rotate it, invert it, print it in black and white if you have a
color printer, and choose what
percentage of the graphic should be displayed.  If you are editing
an equation, get the
WordPerfect manual, because its too much to go over here.  (See
Function Maps.)

Currently all of our text that we've typed has gone all of the way
across the page.  However,
you can edit your document so that what you type is displayed in
columns, rather than in
a full page format.  Press Alt-F7 to get to the main menu of
columns.  (See Function Maps.)


Choose option 1 on the
main menu.  You will be
greeted with three
options, On, Off, and
Define.  Define is the
most important option.
Once you have defined
your columns, options 1
and 2 simply turns the
column mode on or off.

Press 3 to go to the
column definition screen.
Here you will be able to
set up exactly how you
want the columns to look.
The Type of column can
either be Newspaper,
Parallel, or Parallel with
Block Protect.
Newspaper columns have
text that all stays on one
page.  When you finish
with one column,
WordPerfect brings the
text up to the beginning
of the next column.  In
parallel columns each
column is a separate
entity, so that nothing you
do in one column can
affect the next one.  If
you choose Parallel with
Block Protect the text will
be prevented from going
down into the next page.

Choose the Number of
Columns that you want,
as well as the Distance
Between Columns.  After
you have chosen these
options, the margins of
the columns will be
calculated automatically
and displayed in the chart
in the lower half of the
screen.  If you want to
change these margins, to
make one column bigger
than another, simply press
4 and the cursor will be
moved to the chart so
that you can edit the
Now that your columns
have been defined, don't
forget to turn them on if
you want to use them.
On your monitor you will
see the columns displayed
side by side just as they
would appear on the
paper.  However, if you
don't want them displayed
side by side but would
rather see them just like
normal text, you can
change it with the option
we already talked about
at Shift-F1, 2, 6, 7.  To
move from one column to
another in the side by
side display of columns,
press Alt-Left-Arrow or
Alt-Right-Arrow.  Notice
that when columns are
on, you have a new thing
in the status line telling
you which column you are
in.  Also, to force
WordPerfect to go to the
next column, insert a
Hard Page break.

Here is a sample chart created with WordPerfect.

     Group 1   Group 2   Group 3
Day 1 - No ProgressDay 1 - No ProgressDay 1 - Some Progress Day 2
- Some ProgressDay 2 - No ProgressDay 2 - Much Progress Day 3 -
Much ProgressDay 3 - Some ProgressDay 3 - Finished Course

When you choose the Table option from the main menu, you will be
prompted to tell
WordPerfect how many rows and columns you want in the table.  The
table will then be
displayed and you will have a number of options as to how to edit
this table.  There are
much, much to many editing options for me to go over in this
mini-manual, so I won't even
try.  The Help feature on WordPerfect details all of these options
quite well.  Let me just
say that I don't think there is anything you would want to do with
a chart that these options
didn't cover.

Once the table is created and you are back in editing mode, you can
enter your information
into the cells of the table.  Each cell is treated like an
individual line, which it is in a way.
You can enter text exactly like you would in normal editing mode. 
To move from one
column to the next, use the Alt-Left-Arrow and Alt-Right-Arrow
keys.  Do not hit Enter in
any of the cells because you will warp the shape of the chart.

WordPerfect will automatically create standard outlines for you. 
These outlines have eight
levels, with standard numberings:

I.   Hello
     A.   Greetings
     1.   How are you?
     a.   What's up?

     (a)  Howdy, pardner

     i)   What's shakin'?

     a)   Yo!

These are the default numberings and styles for outlining.  To
change the default, press
Shift-F5 and choose option 6, Define.  Here you can define the
numberings that you want
to use.

The outlining main menu is at Shift-F5.  Choose option 4,
Outlining, to get to the outlining
options.  Press 1 to turn the outlining on.  After you turn it on,
press Enter.  You will
prompted with a I.  Type in whatever text you want to go on this
first line and press Enter.
You will then be prompted with a II. on the next line right under
the I.  You may type in
text on this line.  To move to the next level of outlining, press
Tab.  To move back a level,
press Shift-Tab.  (Do not hit the Backspace key instead of the
Shift-Tab key.  This will
delete the outline number, and can affect the way the outline is
produced.) WordPerfect
will automatically calculate the number necessary for the level of
the outline.  You need to
do nothing but type and hit Tab and Back-Tab.  To turn outlining
off, choose option 5 from
the main menu, then option 2.  (See Function Maps.) STANDARD

you can have it
create a Table
of Contents, an
Index, Cross-
or a Table of
The Table of
Contents at the beginning of this manual was generated completely
by WordPerfect.
Creating any one of these is just as difficult with WordPerfect
as it is by hand, but the
advantage to using WordPerfect is that when the page numbers
change, WordPerfect will
change the tables along with them.  Hit Alt-F5 to get into the
main menu of tables.


Option 1 from the main menu will let you create a cross-reference. 
The two things that you
have to do to create a cross-reference is to mark the reference and
the target.  The
reference is the place in the document that you tell the reader to
go look at something else.
The target is what the reference is referring to.  Normally you
would be creating both the
reference and the target at the same time, so you would usually
choose option 3 from the
Cross-Reference menu.  However, there are times when you might wish
to create a
reference to something which hasn't been created yet, and there are
times that you want to
make a target for something that you know you are going to
reference later.  Since options
1 and 2 work the same way as option 3, we are only going to deal
with option 3.

Choose option 3, Mark Both Reference and Target.  You are going to
see five types of
references, Page, Paragraph/Outline, Footnote, Endnote, and
Graphics Box.  To tie the
reference to a page number, choose option 1.  You will then be
asked to move the cursor
to the page that you want to target.  Make sure you put the cursor
at the beginning of the
text you want the reader to look at so that if the page numbers get
changed WordPerfect
will change with it.  Press Enter to mark the target.  If you want
the reference tied to a
paragraph number or an outline level, choose option 2 and move the
cursor to the beginning
of the paragraph, then press Enter to mark the target.  To tie the
reference to a footnote
or an endnote, choose option 3 or 4.  Make sure you move the cursor
to the space
immediately after the code representing the footnote or endnote. 
(You might wish to use
the Reveal Codes screen here, because the footnote and the target
marker must be back to
back.) If you want the reference tied to a graphics box, choose
option 5.  You will be asked
what kind of a graphics box it is, the same as when you created the
box.  Like the footnotes,
move your cursor to the space immediately following the code for
the graphics box and hit

After you press Enter you will be asked for the name of the target. 
This name can be
anything if you are going to use the target or reference only once,
but if you are going to
use multiple references to one target or make multiple targets for
one reference, make sure
the name is something you can remember.  After you type in the
name, WordPerfect will
place a target with that name at the place you hit Enter.  It will
also create a reference to
that target at the place your cursor was when you entered the
cross-referencing feature.
This reference will only display the page number, paragraph number,
etc. of what you are
referencing.  Any additional words in the reference you have to
supply yourself.  For
example, if you wanted the reference to say See Page 3, WordPerfect
will only supply the
3, and you would have to type in See Page yourself.

As you change your document around, the number that was printed by
WordPerfect in your
reference might be wrong.  For example, what was page 2 might now
be page 4.  In order
to change the reference numbers you have to Generate them.  From
the main menu, choose
option 6, Generate.  You will then choose option 5 from the next
menu to generate the new
references.  Everything in your document will then be changed. 
Note: This should be the
last step you do before you print the document.

You will sometimes want to make reference to the same target a
number of times.  To
reference a pre-existing target, simply choose option 1, Mark
Reference, from the cross-
reference menu.  You will then be asked for the type of reference
it is as well as the name
of the target.  In this manner one target is being used for a
number of different references.
By choosing option 2, Mark Target, you can have one reference refer
to a number of
targets.  Let's say you wanted a reference to refer to three
different pages.  You would put
a target on each of the three pages, making sure that each target
has the same name.  Then,
when you created a reference to refer to a target with that name,
WordPerfect would put
make the reference refer to all three targets.  Each number would
be separated by a comma
and a space, i.e. See Page 3, 4, 7.  (See Function Maps.)


There are times when you want to edit a document so large that it
is almost unmanageable.
Well, there is a way to make large documents a little easier to
use.  You can break up your
document into sub-documents.  This manual was created with the
sub-document feature.
What I did was I created each section of this manual as an
individual document.  When I
wanted to edit one of the sections, I just called the file up into
Document 1.  Since it was
only a section long, I could move around in it quickly.  In
Document 2 I created my master
document, which was the collection of all of the sub-documents. 
The master document
simply told WordPerfect what files were going to make up the entire

Every sub-document is an individual file.  You create them, edit
them, and save them just
like any normal file.  Let's say you have three sub-documents on
your default drive, which
we'll call OPENING, BODY, and CLOSING.  We would need to create a
master document
to tell WordPerfect that those three files will make up the final
document.  A master
document is also created just like a normal document.  It can
contain normal text, not just
the names of files.  When you want to insert a file into the
document, you need to create
a sub-document link.  This link is a code which tells WordPerfect
that it needs to retrieve
a file from the disk and put it into the document.
To create a sub-document link, choose option 2 from the main menu. 
You will then be
asked for the filename.  Type in OPENING.  On the screen in the
master document you will
see a box which says Subdoc: OPENING.  This means that WordPerfect
will take the file
called OPENING and stick it into the document right where the box
is.  You can then insert
a Hard Page break and create two more sub-document links for the
files BODY and

What you have here is a condensed master document.  This means that
you are just looking
at the names of the files, not the files themselves.  To look at
the master document as it
would look with all of the files actually present, you need to
expand the document.  To
expand the master document, choose option 6, Generate, from the
main menu.  Then choose
option 3, Expand Master Document.  All of the files will be loaded
into memory.  If a file
is not found on disk, WordPerfect will prompt you for a new name or
to skip the document.
You can now edit all of the sub-documents together if you need to. 
To condense the master
document again, choose option 4 from the Generate menu, Condense
Master Document.
If you made changes to any of the sub-documents, WordPerfect will
ask you if you want to
save the sub-documents as it condenses the master document.  (See
Function Maps.)

Please note that when a master document is expanded, it does not
treat each sub-document
as a separate file.  Any code that you put in a sub-document, such
as a font or a set of
margins, will hold true for all of the following sub-documents
until a new code is found that
replaces the old one.  Also, any lists, tables of contents, etc. 
should be put only in the master


Creating an index is one of the longest, most arduous processes the
writer of a manuscript
can ever do.  It's no wonder professionals often hire other people
to write them.  However,
WordPerfect makes creating an index almost simple by comparison.

The first thing that you need to do is to Define your index. 
Position your cursor at the end
of the document, then choose option 5, Define, from the main menu. 
Choose option 3,
Define Index.  You will be asked to enter the name of a concordance
file.  Keep this in
mind, as we will talk about it later.  For now, just press Enter. 
You will then be given five
options as to how to how the index will look.  The only one that
you might have difficulty
understanding is the fifth one, Flush Right Page Numbers With
Leaders, which simply
means that a row of periods will extend between the word and the
page number.  Once you
choose a numbering style, you've finished defining your index.

Now you have to mark the text that you want to appear in the index. 
The hard way is go
through and manually block each word or phrase that you want in the
index.  (The easy way
is coming.) Block a word or a phrase that you want to appear in the
index.  Then press Alt-
F5.  Notice that since a block is on a new set of choices comes up
onto the menu.  Choose
option 3 to mark the block as an index entry.  You will then be
asked for the name of the
heading that you wish the word to go under.  You will also be asked
for a sub-heading; if
you do not want a sub-heading, simply press Enter.

The easier way is to create a concordance file.  This is a normal
WordPerfect document that
has one word or phrase per line, each line ending in a Hard Return. 
Each word or phrase
that is on a line in the concordance file will be searched for in
the document.  This saves
you the trouble of having to mark every single occurrence of a word
or phrase in the
document.  Save your file to disk and then, when you define your
index, type in the name
of the file when WordPerfect asks you for the concordance file. 
The one major
disadvantage to this method is that WordPerfect will only look for
exact matches, i.e. disks
will not be found if the line in the concordance file is disk.  To
generate an index, do just
what you did with the cross-references.  From the main menu choose
option 6, Generate,
then option 5.  Again, generation should be the last thing you do
before printing.  (See
Function Maps.)

Table of Authorities

A Table of Authorities is usually used for legal purposes as a list
at the beginning of a
document detailing all of the legal documents quoted.  First we
must define the table by
choosing option 5 from the main menu, then option 4, Define Table
of Authorities.  You will
then be asked for a section number that you want to define.  (There
are sixteen possible
section numbers, and each section can have a different style to
it.) Once you choose a
section number, you will be given some options as to how you want
the section styled.  Once
you have chosen those options, you will have defined that section
of your table.  To define
a new section, simply go through the same process.  After you have
defined a table, you
should immediately insert a Hard Page break.  Also, after the Hard
Page break you should
insert a new page number (Shift-F8, 2, 6, 1).  This is because
creating a table could throw
off the page numbers that WordPerfect will read.

     NOTE:  Whenever you are defining a Table of Authorities or a
Table of Contents,
     you should start numbering your pages only after the tables
are done being created,
     and should start the page numbering with page number 1.  This
will prevent page
     numbering problems that might arise from having a table which
lists page numbers
     being in the page numbering system itself.

To mark an authority, block the full text of the authority in the
document and press Alt-F5.
Then choose option 4.  Enter the section number under which you
want the reference to
appear.  You will then be put into an editing screen where you can
change the wording to
make it look as you want it in the table.  When you are finished,
press F7.  You will then
be prompted to enter the short form of the entry, which can be a
unique nickname you can
use to identify the same entry a number of different places in the
document.  If you come
across the same entry again and want it to go under the same
section as the previous one,
press Enter when WordPerfect asks you for a section number. 
WordPerfect will then
prompt you to type in the short form of the reference.  To generate
the Table of
Authorities, choose option 6, Generate, from the main menu, and
then choose option 5.


You can define up to ten different lists in WordPerfect to list
miscellaneous items.  If you
are going to list things other than graphics, or if you are going
to list only a certain number
of the graphics, use only lists 1-5.  Lists 6-10 are configured in
a special way.  First, define
the list by choosing option 5 from the main menu.  Then choose
option 2 to define a list.
You will be asked for a list number, and then the style of the page
numbering for the list.

Marking list entries works in exactly the same manner as it did for
all the previous sections.
Block the word or phrase, then press Alt-F5 and choose option 2. 
You will be asked which
list you want the entry to go in.  (If you want it to go in two
separate lists, you have to mark
the entry once for each list.)

Lists 6-10 are configured specifically for types of graphics boxes. 
Each type of list will
automatically take the captions from the graphics boxes and use
those to make the list.  List
6 will automatically use all of the captions for all of figure
boxes.  (The captions of the
figure boxes do not need to be marked.) List 7 does the same for
table boxes, list 8 for text
boxes, list 9 for user-defined boxes, and list 10 for equation
boxes. To generate the lists,
choose option 6 from the main menu, then option 5.

Table of Contents

To define a Table of Contents choose option 5 from the main menu,
then choose option 1,
Define Table of Contents.  You will be asked to choose from a
number of options.  The
Number of Levels can be up to 5.  These are the number of headings
and sub-headings that
you can choose from.  For example, the Table of Contents for this
document has only two
levels two it, the first one for the main sections (in capitals)
and the second one for the sub-
sections.  (If I had wanted sub-sections of the sub-sections I
would have defined three
levels.) Display Last Level in Wrapped Format means that the last
level of information will
be in paragraph style, rather than in a list style.  Page Numbering
allows you to choose a
standard style of page numbering for each level.

Now that you have defined the table, you must mark the text for
each entry.  Block the text
of the entry, then press Alt-F5 and choose option 1.  You will be
asked to type in the level
of the entry.  Now the text that you blocked will be included in
the Table of Contents.  To
generate the table, choose option 6 from the main menu, then choose
option 5.  (See
Function Maps.)

Merging is a very powerful utility on WordPerfect, one that is most
often used to create
mass mailings to large groups of people.  Basically, what merge
does is to take information
from one source, then use that information in a special way in the
document.  However,
merge is also the single most complicated thing in all of
WordPerfect.  It takes fully 127
pages to explain in the WordPerfect manual.  I am just going to try
to get you started on
the command with the basic need-to-know information.  If you have
trouble understanding
how the merging works, please look at the Function Maps in Appendix
II, where I'll explain
it in the simplest possible terms.

To use merge, you have to have two types of files: Master Files and
Data Files.  A master
file has all of the information as to how the data is to be
organized and manipulated.  The
data files contain all of the raw facts and figures which are going
to be imported into the
master file.  The first thing to do is to create the data file. 
Start it just like any normal file.
Press Shift-F9 and choose option 6, More.  In the upper right
corner of the screen you will
see a list of commands.  Use the arrow keys to move the selection
bar down to the
command {FIELD NAMES}.  A field is the name of a piece of
information.  Press Enter.
You will then be asked to type in the names of the fields that you
want, i.e. Name, Address,
Phone Number, etc.  When you have finished typing in all of the
field names, press Enter
without typing anything.  The fields will be displayed on the
screen, followed by a Hard Page

What you just did was to type in the definition of the records, the
style that every record has
to follow.  Now you can start typing in your records.  You need to
enter the information in
order of the names of the fields that you just created.  Type in
the first name.  Do not hit
Enter.  Press Shift-F9 and choose option 6.  Move the selection bar
down to {END FIELD}
and press Enter.  (Note that F9 will also put in an {END FIELD}
marker.) Do the same
thing after you finish typing in the address and the phone number. 
(Note that a field can
take up more than one line.) When you have finished typing in the
record, choose {END
RECORD} from the list of commands.  A Hard Page break will be
inserted into the
document, and you can start typing your next record.  When you are
done entering the data,
save the file and exit from it.

Now that you have your data file created, you need to create the
master file.  Basically, any
piece of information that you put in the data file can be used
anywhere in the master file.
In order to insert a piece of information, press Shift-F9 and
choose option 1, Field.  You
will be asked to type in the name of the field from the data file. 
Press Enter.  A merge
code will be inserted into the document.  When you are done with
the file, and have put in
all of the merge codes that you want, save it and exit from the
Now you want to merge the two files together, so that the
information from the data file will
get sent into the master file.  Hit Ctrl-F9 and choose option 1,
Merge.  You will asked for
the name of the primary file, which is the master file.  Then you
will be asked for the name
of the secondary file, which is the data file.  WordPerfect will
merge the two together, and
on the screen will appear a number of documents, one right after
another, each separated
by a Hard Page break.  Each copy of the document will have the
information from a
different record.  You can save and print this new file just like
any normal file.  (See
Function Maps.)


If you have a list of things that are out of order, you can have
WordPerfect sort them to
your specifications.  The first thing to do is to block the text
that you wish to sort.  The press
Ctrl-F9.  You will be moved to a sorting screen.  It is there that
you choose all of your
sorting options.

The first thing that you need to do is choose the type of sort you
are going to perform.
Choose option 7, Type.  If you are sorting a data file in a merge,
choose option 1.  If you
are sorting lines of information, choose option 2.  And if you are
sorting paragraphs with
at least two Hard Returns after them, choose option 3.

If you want to sort in descending order instead of ascending,
choose option 6, Order.

The most important option is 3, Keys.  This sets the list of
priorities as to how each line is
going to be sorted, i.e. last name, first name, etc.  Choose option
3, Keys.  You can move
your cursor around in the keys.  There are three options you can
change for every key, Typ,
Field, and Word.  These options tell WordPerfect how to sort the
chosen words, and where
on each line the chosen words are.  Each field on a line is
separated by a Tab.  For
example, the line:

Erik Jones 55 Lake Avenue N.  Worcester

contains three fields, each separated by a Tab.  The first field
contains 2 words, the second
field contains 4 words, and the third field contains 1 word.  If
all the field were like this and
I wanted WordPerfect to sort primarily by last name, next to key 1
I would put a "1" under
Field, since the last name is in the first field, and a "2" under
Word, since the last name is
the second word in the first field.  Under Typ I would put an "a",
since the word contains
characters.  If the word contained just numerals, I would put "n"
under Typ.  Next I would
want WordPerfect to sort the first names, just in case there were
two or more people with
the same last name, so next to key 2 I would put an "a" under Typ,
and a "1" under Field
and Word.

When you are done entering the keys, press F7 to exit.  Then, to
perform the search, choose
option 1.  The sort will be performed, and you will be returned to
the document.


There are many ways that you can save or retrieve text into
WordPerfect.  The Text main
menu is at Ctrl-F5.
DOS Text

Option 1, DOS Text, lets you retrieve a file which is in ASCII
format, or to save a
WordPerfect file into ASCII format.  This is useful if you want to
move a file from one word
processor to another.  When you choose this option, you will be
given three more.  Option
1, Save, lets you save the WordPerfect file on the screen to a disk
in ASCII format.  All
standard WordPerfect codes are deleted or altered.  Options 2 and
3 let you retrieve ASCII
files into WordPerfect.  There is a big difference between the two
methods, however.
Option 2 will put a Hard Return at the end of each line, and option
3 will put a Soft Return
at the end of each line.  This can affect your editing of the
document, and I always
recommend option 3.  Please note that the document might not look
very nice and neat
when you get it into WordPerfect, and that you might have to change
around some of the


Option 2 from the main menu lets you put a password in your
document so that no one can
retrieve it or look at it without knowing the password.  When you
choose this option, you
will be asked whether you want to add/change or remove a password. 
To add a password,
choose option 1.  You will be asked to enter the password, then
re-enter it to make sure you
entered it correctly.  Please note that when you type in the
password it will not appear on
the screen, so that anyone looking over your shoulder won't know
what the password is.
Now, anytime you try to retrieve or look at the document, you will
be asked for the
password.  To remove a password, choose option 2 from the password

Save As

Option 3, Save As, lets you save a file in Generic, WordPerfect
5.0, or WordPerfect 4.2
format.  The main difference between saving a file in Generic
format and in ASCII format
is that Generic will keep the look of the text intact.  Saving the
text in a previous version
of WordPerfect will allow you to transfer the file from WordPerfect
5.1 to a computer with
an earlier version.  Note that if you have a file created with an
earlier version of
WordPerfect, WordPerfect 5.1 will have no problem retrieving it. 
(Some of the codes might
be transferred to comments if they have to real equivalent in
WordPerfect 5.1.) (See
Function Maps.)

A comment is text which appears on the screen but is not printed. 
Choose option 4,
Comment.  To create a comment, choose option 1.  You will be put
into an editing screen
where you can enter any text you want.  Press F7 when you are
finished.  The comment will
be displayed on the screen in a box, but will not affect the text
of the document.  To edit
a document, choose option 2 from the Comment menu, and WordPerfect
will search
backwards from the cursor until it finds the last comment.  If you
choose option 3 from the
Comment menu, Convert to Text, the last comment before the cursor
will be converted into
normal text and inserted into the document.  See Edit-Screen
Options at Shift-F1, 2, 6 to
choose whether comments will be printed or not.


WordPerfect 5.1 can import spreadsheets from many different
sources, including Quattro
Pro, Lotus 1-2-3, and Excel.  To import a spreadsheet from a file,
choose option 5, then
option 1, Import.  You will be put in a menu where you must tell
WordPerfect what the
name of the file is, the rows and columns you want imported
(default is the whole thing),
and whether you want it imported into text format or table format. 
The file will be
imported into your document, and can be edited at will.

Instead of important the file directly, you can create a link to
the file.  This is identical to
the links we created when we were working with sub-documents.  This
means that whenever
the spreadsheet is changed, WordPerfect will always have the new
spreadsheet on hand.  To
create a link, choose option 2 from the Spreadsheet menu and fill
in the information.  After
you finish, go back to the Spreadsheet menu and choose option 4,
Link Options.  I
recommend that option 1, Update on Retrieve, be changed to "Yes",
so that whenever you
retrieve the document, the latest version of the spreadsheet will
be imported.  Otherwise,
you will have to choose option 3 from this menu every time you want
the links updated.


There is a program that comes with WordPerfect 5.1 which lets you
convert files from many
other formats to WordPerfect.  You can also convert WordPerfect
files to most of these
formats.  The program is called CONVERT, and is not accessible from
within WordPerfect.
It is a program that actually exists separately from WordPerfect. 
As a matter of fact, you
can use the program even if you don't have WordPerfect, to transfer
documents from one
type of word processor to another, using this program as a

The first thing you need to do is go to DOS, so hit Ctrl-F1 and
choose option 1.  This will
put you into DOS at the command prompt.  Now that you are in DOS,
type cd\wp51 and
press Enter.  Then type in the word convert and hit Enter.  You are
now accessing the
conversion utility.

The first thing that the program will ask you is the name of your
input file.  This is the file
that you want to be converted.  Make sure when you do this that you
type in the path of the
file as well, i.e. a:filename.  Then you are going to be asked the
name of the output file.
WordPerfect won't simply convert the file and forget about the
original, it will save the new
file under a different name so that the original remains intact. 
So type in a new name,
including the path, and hit Enter.

You will then be given all of the formats that can be converted to
WordPerfect.  Most of
these formats are various commercial word processors, and some are
various codes that
certain pieces of software and hardware use.  Number 1 on the menu
will bring you to the
shorter list of formats that you can translate a WordPerfect
document into.

Once you choose the format, the conversion will begin.  After the
file is finished converting,
type in exit to return to WordPerfect.  These conversion utilities
are made so that as much
as possible from the original file is translated.  However, there
are some things that one
word processor can do that another processor can't.  Therefore,
don't expect 100% accuracy
in the translations.

Please note that you often do not have to do conversions with this
program.  WordPerfect
5.0 documents load into WordPerfect 5.1 with little or no problem,
and WordPerfect 4.2
documents can do the same if they are simple.  Also, simple DOS
text files can just be
retrieved like regular WordPerfect files.  WordPerfect can handle
DOS text very easily, so
you might not have to use the conversion program at all.

These are some features of WordPerfect that did not fit well in
other sections.

You can insert a date code or a date text into your document.  Both
of these will insert a
date into your document, in the style that you have defined for
dates.  The difference is that
a date code will change for any day that you call up the document,
making keeping track
of when different versions of a document were printed very easy. 
A date text prints the text
of the current day, and will not change as the days pass.  To
insert either one, press Shift-F5
and choose either option 1 or 2.  The appropriate date will be
inserted into the document
at the cursor.

Compose Characters

There is a file in the C:\WP51 directory called PRINTER.TST.  Load
the file into memory
and print it on your printer.  The characters that are printed are
the ones that your printer
can handle.  Most of these characters are not on the keyboard and
must be accessed in a
special way.  Notice that there are 9 character "maps", and each
map is a grid set up with
256 locations for characters.  Press Ctrl-V and the word Key = will
appear on the status
line.  Now type in the number of the map, a comma with no space
after it, and the number
of the character.  Now hit Enter.  The character might not appear
on the screen as it should
look, but if you use the View Document feature you can see the
character there on the

Flush Right

You can have anything in your document flush against the right
margin.  The key is Alt-F6.
Anything you type on the line after you press this key will be
lined up against the rightmost
margin.  If you hit Alt-F6 twice in a row a line of periods will be
extended from the place
where the cursor was to the text at the right margin.

Go to DOS

You can execute a DOS command from WordPerfect, or go into a DOS
"shell" that lets you
act as if you were in DOS without exiting from WordPerfect.  Both
of these commands are
accessible by hitting Ctrl-F1.  By choosing option 1 you will be
put right into DOS.  Type
exit to get out of the shell and back to WordPerfect.  By choosing
option 2, you will be
asked to type the command that you would like WordPerfect to

Here is a template for WordPerfect 5.1.  Copy it, cut it out, and
tape it above your function

     F1   F2   F3   F4   F5
F6   F7   F8   F9   F10  F11  F12
│CTRL:    │ DOS     │ SPELL │ LINE │ MOVE │  │ TEXT │TAB
│Alt:  │Thesaur.│Replace │Rv.Codes│ Block │ │ Tables
│Fl.Right│Columns │ Style │   │Graphics│ Macro │  │

│Shift:  │ Setup │Search<-│ Switch │>Indent<│ │Outline │
Center │ Print │ Format │     │Mrg.Code│Retrieve│ │

│Normal: │ Cancel │Search->│ Help │Indent->│ │ Disk │ Bold │ Exit
│Underlin│ │End Fld.│ Save │Rv.Codes│ Block │


Sometimes I have found it useful to break the functions of a piece
of software down in to
simplistic, step-by-step instructions.  That is what these function
maps are for.  In each of
the functions listed I will tell you exactly how to perform any of
the given functions.  If you
follow these maps, you will not be given much choice as to the
special ways to configure the
functions.  This will just give you the most basic of steps to get
the function working.

When you go through these maps, all keys that you have to press are
printed in boldface.
If there are a number of keys in a row that you have to press, each
key will be separated
by a comma and a space.  Each step is numbered, and sometimes there
will be explanations
along the way.  PLEASE NOTE that all of these maps assume that you
are starting on the
main editing screen.

Retrieve a Document

1.   Insert the disk with the document on it into drive "A".

2.   Press F5.

3.   Type A: and press Enter.

4.   Move the selection bar down to the file you want to get.

5.   Press 1.

Find a Document on Disk

1.   Press F5.

2.   Press F5 to accept the directory that is being displayed.  If
you wish to enter a new
directory, do so and press Enter.

3.   Press 9, 4.

4.   Enter the word or phrase you wish to search for and press
Enter.  The search will now go
through all of the files.  A list of the files in which the word
was found will be displayed.

5.   If you want to narrow the files down again, go to step 3.

Turn on Justification

1.   Position the cursor where you want the justification to begin.

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 1, 3, 4.

4.   Press Enter, Enter.

Make Document Double-Spaced

1.   Position the cursor where you want the double-spacing to

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 1, 6, 2.

4.   Press Enter, Enter, Enter.

Change Left/Right Margins

1.   Position the cursor where you want the new margins to begin.

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 1, 7.

4.   Type in the number of inches that you want the left margin to
be.  Press Enter.

5.   Type in the number of inches that you want the right margin to
be.  Press Enter.

6.   Press Enter, Enter.

Change Top/Bottom Margins

1.   Position the cursor where you want the new margins to begin.

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 2, 5.

4.   Type in the number of inches that you want the top margin to
be.  Press Enter.

5.   Type in the number of inches that you want the bottom margin
to be.  Press Enter.

6.   Press Enter, Enter.

Create a Header/Footer

1.   Position the cursor at the top of page on which you want the
header or footer to begin.

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 3 if you want a header, or press 4 if you want a footer.

4.   Press 1, 2.  You will now be placed in an editing screen.

5.   Enter the text of the header/footer.

6.   Press F7.

7.   Press Enter, Enter.

Number Pages

1.   Position the cursor at the top of the page on which you want
the page numbering to

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 2, 6.

4.   Press 1.

5.   Enter the number of the page that you want the page numbering
to start at.  Press Enter.

6.   Press 4.

7.   Press 2 if you want the page numbering at the top of the page,
or press 6 if you want the
page numbering at the bottom of the page.

8.   Press Enter, Enter, Enter.

Change to Landscape Orientation

1.   Position the cursor on the top of the page that you want the
landscape orientation to take

2.   Press Shift-F8.

3.   Press 2, 7.

4.   Press N.

5.   Type Standard - Wide.  Press Enter.

6.   Press 1.

7.   Press Enter, Enter.

Make Timed Backups

1.Press Shift-F1.

2.Press 3, 1.

3.   Press 1.

4.   Press Y.

5.   Type 10 and press Enter.

6.   Press Enter, Enter, Enter.

Create Initial Codes

1.   Press Shift-F1.

2.   Press 4, 5.

3.   Type in whatever codes you wish, using the various function

4.   Press F7.

5.   Press Enter, Enter.

Spell Check a Document

1.   Press Home, Home, Up-Arrow.

2.   Press Ctrl-F2.

3.   Press 3.

4.   The screen will split in two halves.  In the top half will be
your document, with a word
highlighted that WordPerfect does not recognize.  You have a number
of choices:

     4.a. If you want to skip the word this once, press 1.
     4.b. If you want to skip this word whenever WordPerfect
encounters it, press 2.
     4.c. If you want to add this word to your personal dictionary,
press 3.
     4.d. If you want to edit this word, press 4.  Your cursor will
be put back into the
document, where you can edit the word.  When you are done editing,
press F7.
     4.e. To choose a word from the list at the bottom of the
screen, press the letter next
to that word.  To see more possible words, press Enter.

5.   Repeat step 4 until the document has been completely checked. 
To cancel spell checking
at any time, press F1.

Use the Thesaurus

1.   Position the cursor on the word you want to check for.

2.   Press Alt-F1.  On the screen will appear three columns, one,
two, or all of which will contain
synonyms for the word.

3.   There will be a bold, capital letter to the left of each word
in the left column.  If the word
you want in another column, press the Right-Arrow key once or
twice, until the bold letters
are in the column you want.

4.   Press 1.

5.   Press the letter next to the word that you want to replace the
old word with.

Find Text

1.   Position the cursor where you want the search to begin.

2.   You can perform a search forward from the cursor or backward
from the cursor.

     2.a. To perform a search forward from the cursor, press F2.
     2.b. To perform a search backward from the cursor, press

3.   Type the word or phrase you want to search for.

4.   Press F2.  WordPerfect will move the cursor to the first
occurrence of the word.

5.   To search for the next occurrence, press F2, F2.

Find and Replace Text

1.   Position the cursor where you want the search to begin.

2.   Press Alt-F2.

3.   Press Y.

4.   Enter the text you want to search for.

5.   Press F2.

6.   Enter the text you want to replace it with.

7.   Press F2.  WordPerfect will move the cursor to the first
occurrence of the word.

8.   To replace the word, press Y.  To skip to the next occurrence
of the word, press N.

9.   To cancel the search at any time, press F1.


To make a macro:

1.   Press Ctrl-F10.

2.   Type in a word, or press and hold Alt and press a letter.

     2.a. If a message saying ********.WPM Already Exists comes up
on the bottom line
of the screen, press 1, Y.

3.   You will now be returned to the editing screen, with the words
Macro Def blinking at the
bottom left corner of the screen.  Type whatever you want to be in
the macro, remembering
that every single keystroke will be recorded.

4.   When you are done defining the macro, press Ctrl-F10.

To invoke a macro:

1.   If the name of your macro was the Alt key and a letter, press
and hold the Alt key and
press that letter.

2.   If the name of your macro was a word, press Alt-F10.

3.   Type in the name of the macro.  Press Enter.

View a Document

1.   Position your cursor on the page you want to view.

2.   Press Shift-F7.

3.   Press 6.  A graphic depiction of how your page will look when
printed will appear on the

4.   There are four levels at which you can view the document:

     4.a. Press 1 to see the page as big as it will be when
     4.b. Press 2 to get close-up magnification of the page.
     4.c. Press 3 to see the entire page.
     4.d. Press 4 to see to facing pages, as if they were bound in
a book format.

5.   To move through the page, use the Arrow Keys.  To move to
another page, press PgUp
or PgDn.  (Note that if you are viewing facing pages PgUp and PgDn
move 2 pages at a time.)
Import a Graphic

1.   Position your cursor where you want the graphic to be.

2.   Press Alt-F9.

3.   Press 1, 1.

4.   The graphic will either be a standard WordPerfect graphic or
a special one that did not come
with the WordPerfect program.

     4.a. If the graphic came with WordPerfect, go to step 5.
     4.b. If the graphic is a new one, go to step 8.

5.   Press 1.

6.   Type the name of the graphic and press Enter.

7.   Go to step 11.

8.   Press 1.

9.   Insert the disk with the graphic on it into drive "A".

10.  Type a: immediately followed by the name of the graphic. 
Press Enter.

11.  Press 6, 3.

12.  Press 3.

13.  Type in the caption for the picture.  Press F7.

14.  Press Enter.

Create Columns

1.   Position the cursor where you want the columns to begin.

2.   Press Alt-F7.

3.   Press 1, 3.

4.   Press 2.

5.   Type in the number of columns you want.  Press Enter.

6.   Press 3.

7.   Type in the distance in inches you want between columns. 
Press Enter.

8.   Press Enter.

9.   Press 1.

To turn columns off:

1.   Position the cursor where you want the columns to turn off.

2.   Press Alt-F7.

3.   Press 1, 2.

Make a Cross-Reference to a Page

1.   Position your cursor where you want the reference to be

2.   Type whatever preceding text you wish, i.e. See Page.

3.   Press Alt-F5.

4.   Press 1, 3, 1.

5.   Move your cursor to the text that you want the reference to
refer to.  Press Enter.

6.   Enter a short name of the reference.  Press Enter.

7.   See the Generate function map.

Make a Sub-document

1.   Move your cursor where you want the document to be imported.

2.   Press Alt-F5.

3.   Press 2.

4.   Type the name of the file.  The file should be on the default
directory, else you should
precede the name of the file with a drive letter, a colon, and a
directory path.  Press Enter.

To expand the file:

1.   Press Alt-F5.

2.   Press 6, 3.

To condense the file:

1.   Press Alt-F5.

2.   Press 6, 4.

3.   Press Y if you want to save the sub-documents, else press N.

Make an Index

1.   Press Shift-F3.  This will take you into Document 2.

2.   Type a word that you want WordPerfect to look for.  Press

3.   Go to step 2 until you have typed in all of the words that you
want in the index.

4.   Press Home, Home, Up-Arrow.

5.   Press Alt-F4.

6.   Press Home, Home, Down-Arrow.

7.   Press Ctrl-F9.

8.   Press 1.  This will sort all of the words you typed into
alphabetical order.

9.   Press F7.

10.  Press Y.

11.  Type concord and press Enter.

     11.a.     If a message saying Replace CONCORD comes up on the
bottom of the screen,
press Y.

12.  Press Y.  You will now be returned to Document 1.

13.  Position your cursor where you want the index to be.  It is
recommended that the index
be at the end of the document.

14.  Press Alt-F5.

15.  Press 5, 3.

16.  Type concord and press Enter.

17.  Press 2.

18.  Go to the Generate function map.

Create a Table of Contents

1.   Position the cursor where you want the table to be.

2.   Press Alt-F5.

3.   Press 5, 1.

4.   Press 1.

5.   Press 2 and hit Enter.  This will give you two levels in your
table, which is what I
recommend so that you can point out the large sections, plus the
smaller sections within the
large sections.

6.   Press Enter.

7.   Move your cursor to the heading of the next section.  Position
your cursor so that it is right
in front of the words of the heading.  You might want to press
Alt-F3 to reveal the codes to
make sure there are no codes between the cursor and the words of
the heading, such as an
underline code or a center code.

8.   Press Alt-F4.

9.   Move your cursor to the end of the heading.

10.  Press Alt-F5.

11.  Press 1.

12.  Press the level that you want this heading put at in the table
of contents.  If the section
is a major one, press 1.  If the section is a smaller one within a
major section, press 2.

13.  Press Enter.

14.  Go to step 7.

15.  When you are done marking all of the section headings, go to
the Generate function


1.   This should be the LAST thing you do before you print a

2.   Press Alt-F5.

3.   Press 6, 5.

4.   Press Y.

Save a Document as WordPerfect 5.0

1.   Press Ctrl-F5.

2.   Press 3, 2.

3.   Type in the name of the file and press Enter.


1.   Position the cursor where you want the outlining to begin.

2.   Press Shift-F5.

3.   Press 4, 1.

4.   You are now in outlining mode.

     4.a. To create a new line, press Enter.
     4.b. To move forward a level on a line, press Tab.
     4.c. To move backward a level on a line, press Shift-Tab.

To turn outlining off:

1.   Press Shift-F5.

2.   Press 4, 2.

Create a Basic Mail-Merge

This will give you the steps necessary to create a mailing list and
a letter to send out to everyone
on that mailing list.  Make sure you start this map with nothing
present in either Document 1
or Document 2.

Making the mailing list:

1.   Press Shift-F9.

2.   Press 6.

3.   Type field names and press Enter.

4.   Type fullname and press Enter.

5.   Type business and press Enter.

6.   Type address and press Enter.

7.   Type phone and press Enter.

8.   Type greeting and press Enter.

9.   Press Enter.  The names of the fields will appear on the
screen, followed by a Hard Page

10.  Type in the full name of the next person on the mailing list
and press F9.

11.  Type in the person's business and press F9.

12.  Type in the person's address, press Enter after each line. 
When done, press F9.

13.  Type in the person's phone number and press F9.

14.  Type in how you want to greet the person, i.e. Mr. Johnson,
and press F9.

15.  Press Shift-F9.

16.  Press 2.

17.  Go to step 10.

18.  When done creating the mailing list, press F7.

19.  Press Y.

20.  Type maillist and press Enter.

     20.a.     If a message saying Replace MAILLIST comes up, press

21.  Press N.

Creating the letter:

1.   Type in whatever heading you want in the letter.  Now we are
going to create the address.

2.   Press Shift-F9, 1.

3.   Type fullname and press Enter.

4.   Press Shift-F9, 1.

5.   Type business and press Enter.

6.   Press Shift-F9, 1.

7.   Type address and press Enter.

8.   Press Shift-F9, 1.

9.   Type phone and press Enter.

10.  Press Enter.

11.  Type Dear and press the Spacebar.

12.  Press Shift-F9, 1.

13.  Type greeting and press Enter.

14.  Type : and press Enter.

15.  Type the body of the letter as you want it to appear.

16.  When you are done typing the letter, press F7.

17.  Press Y.

18.  Type letter and press Enter.

     18.a.     If a message saying Replace LETTER comes up, press

19.  Press N.
Merging the files:

1.   Press Ctrl-F9.

2.   Press 1.

3.   Type letter and press Enter.

4.   Type maillist and press Enter.  The documents will be merged
onto the screen.  Each letter
is in the file on the screen, a Hard Page break separating each
letter.  You may now save or
print this file like any normal file.

Copy Text Between Documents

I assume that for this map you have in Doc 1 the file where the
text is coming from, and in Doc
2 the file where the text is going to.

1.   Position the cursor at the beginning of the text you want to
move and press Alt-F4.

2.   Move the cursor to the end of the text you want to move and
press Ctrl-F4.

3.   Press 1, 2.

4.   Press Shift-F3.

5.   Position the cursor where you want the text to be placed and
press Enter.

     Advance page 22
     Alt  4
     Appearance 33
     Append    36
     Arrow keys     4
     ASCII     53
     Backspace4, 7, 12
     Backup    25
     Baseline Placement23
     Beep 26
     Binding   31
     Blocking text 35
     Boldface  9
     Border Options23
     Buffer    36
     Cancel    13
     Carriage return4
     Center Page 20
     Characters 56
     Charts    44
     Codes     12
     Colors    24
     Columns25, 43, 67
     Comment   54
     Compose   56
     Concordance file48
     Condense  48
     Conditional End of Page22
     Control Printer30
     Convert files 55
     Copy file 15
     Copying text 36
     Cross-reference46, 68
     Ctrl 4
     Cursor movement8
     Cursor Speed 26
     Date 26, 56
     Decimal Align Character23
     Default directory13
     Default printer27
     Del  7, 12
     Delete    7
     Delete document14
     Disk 13
     Display   24

Document Summary22, 26

     DOS2, 16,













document15, 59



Footers20, 61


keys5, 10

Maps1, 58

Generate38, 47, 49, 71






Return4, 8, 25

Headers20, 61










Justification17, 23, 59



orientation21, 62



     Line Numbering18
     Line Spacing18, 60
     Lists     50
     Loading   3
     Look at document15
     Macro     39, 65
     Mailing list 72
     Margins, Left/Right18, 60
     Margins, Top/Bottom20, 60
     Markers 12, 33
     Master document47
     Measure 18, 26
     Merge14, 25, 51, 72
     Mouse     1
     Moving text 36
     Multiple Copies32
     Num Lock  9
     Number pad     4
     Outline 45, 71
     Overstrike 23
     Page 7
     Page Numbering21, 61
     Paper     21
     Password  53
     PgDn 8
     PgUp 8
     Portrait orientation21
     Print     30
     Print Color 34
     Printer Command23
     Printer Functions23
     Printing options31
     Proportional fonts11
     Quality of printing32
     Redlining 22, 33
     Reference 46, 68
     Rename document14
     Replace 37, 64
     Retrieve  59
     Retrieve document14
     Reveal Codes12, 25
     Rewrite   11
     Save 53, 71
     Save As   53
     Save document 14
     Screen Type 24
     Search 37, 64

     Select Printer31








check28, 63


line3, 25







     Tab4, 6,



     Table of

     Table of
Contents49, 50, 70


Template10, 57




Thesaurus29, 63




Document24, 31, 65

Widow/Orphan protection19


     Word and
Letter Spacing23


WordPerfect 4.253

WordPerfect 5.053, 71


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